Enhanced Diagnostic Tools
Arenaviruses are important emerging pathogens and include a number of hemorrhagic fever viruses classified as NIAID category A priority pathogens and CDC potential biothreat agents. Infection of guinea pigs with the New World arenavirus Pichinde´ virus (PICV) has been used as a biosafety level 2 model for the Lassa virus. Despite continuing research, little is known about the molecular basis of pathogenesis, and this has hindered the design of novel antiviral therapeutics. Modulation of the host response is a potential strategy for the treatment of infectious diseases. We have previously investigated the global host response to attenuated and lethal arenavirus infections by using high-throughput immunoblotting and kinomics approaches. In this report, we describe the differential nuclear proteomes of a murine cell line induced by mock infection and infection with attenuated and lethal variants of PICV, investigated by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Spot identification using tandem mass spectrometry revealed the involvement of a number of proteins that regulate inflammation via potential modulation of NF-κB activity and of several heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear proteins. Pathway analysis revealed a potential role for transcription factor XBP-1, a transcription factor involved in major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) expression; differential DNA-binding activity was revealed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and differences in surface MHC-II expression were seen following PICV infection. These data are consistent with the results of several previous studies and highlight potential differences between transcriptional and translational regulation. This study provides a number of differentially expressed targets for further research and suggests that key events in pathogenesis may be established early in infection.
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