Enhanced Diagnostic Tools
The potential use of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to promote bone-healing is of great interest to orthopaedic surgeons. Although the complex mechanism leading from the local presence of BMP (whether endogenous or exogenous) to bone formation is increasingly understood, limited information is available as to whether endogenous BMPs, their receptors, or other molecules involved in their signal transduction, such as Smad1, are present or disappear during the development of fracture nonunions. The purpose of the present study was to determine, by immunohistochemical analysis, whether BMPs, BMP receptors, or Smad1 disappear from tissues during the development of a fracture nonunion.
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