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ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) are ;20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that activate cholera toxin and phospholipase D and are critical components of vesicular trafficking pathways. ARF domain protein 1 (ARD1), a member of the ARF superfamily, contains a 46-kDa amino-terminal extension, which acts as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) with activity towards its ARF domain. When overexpressed, ARD1 was associated with lysosomes and the Golgi apparatus. In agreement with this finding, lysosomal and Golgi membranes isolated from human liver by immunoaffinity contained native ARD1. ARD1, expressed as a green fluorescent fusion protein, was initially associated with the Golgi network and subsequently appeared on lysosomes, suggesting that ARD1 might undergo vectorial transport between the two organelles. Here we show by microscopic colocalization that GAP and ARF domains determine lysosomal and Golgi localization, respectively, consistent with the presence of more than one signal motif. Using truncated ARD1 molecules, expressed as green fluorescent fusion proteins, it was found that the signal for lysosomal localization was present in residues 301 to 402 of the GAP domain. Site-specific mutagenesis demonstrated that the sequence 369KXXXQ373 in the GAP domain was responsible for lysosomal localization. Association of ARD1 with the Golgi apparatus required tyrosine-based motifs. A green fluorescent fusion protein containing the QKQQQQF motif was partially associated with lysosomes, suggesting that this motif contains the information sufficient for lysosomal targeting. These results suggest that ARD1 is a multidomain protein with ARF and GAP regions, which contain Golgi and lysosomal localization signals, respectively, that could function in vesicular trafficking.
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