Enhanced Diagnostic Tools
Universal bases can be used to replace degenerate bases. This type of modifier can
base pair with all four of the standard bases. Designing primers from protein sequences
by backtranslation usually results in degenerate oligonucleotides. Universal bases
are used to reduce oligonucleotide degeneracy. The best known of these types of
modified bases are 2'-DeoxyInosine and 2'-DeoxyNebularine. Neither of these two
bases binds to all four bases evenly, but they are a frequently used method of reducing
degeneracy. As an alternative, bases such as 3-Nitropyrrole 2'-deoxynucleoside and
5-Nitroindole 2'-deoxynucleoside can be used to take advantage of duplex stabilization
by base stacking effects. The degenerate bases dP and dK can form base pairs with
purines and pyrimidines, respectively, and can also be used to reduce the overall
degeneracy of an oligonucleotide.
Click on specification page for details.
Desalt or cartridge (RP1) purification is acceptable for most common phosphoramidite
modifiers. However, additional purification is strongly recommended for modifiers
that require NHS-ester chemistry to conjugate a dye through an amine linker such
as Molecular Probes dyes.
Due to the chemistry of many modifications, yield will be approximately 40 - 60
% less than a standard oligo.Please see our yield chart for details.
Every oligo synthesized is strictly controlled for quality by using either MALDI-TOF
mass spectrometry or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis. Final yields
are determined using UV absorbance at OD260 In addition, we perform QC
methods tailored to specific modifications, such as OD ratio measurement where appropriate.
For additional information, please Contact us.