Enhanced Diagnostic Tools
Fluorescent labeled oligonucleotide probes provide the advantages of the highest sensitivity
and specificity paired with low toxicity. These probes are widely used for detection, localization
or quantification of target DNA sequence in cells and other biological systems. High
sensitive fluorescent detection and quantitative systems require a high range of
flexibility in dye labeling technology. Bio-Synthesis provides a wide range of oligonucleotides with
single, double or even multiple labeling using classic fluorescent dyes or newly
Our flexibility for fluorescent modifications has been used in the application of methods
such as, FISH, In situ Hybridization, sequencing and genotyping. Qualitative and
quantitative detection of PCR products (qPCR/Real Time PCR) using fluorescent and
quencher pairs. Furthermore, fluorescent modifications could be combined with non-fluorescent
modifications like Phosphate, Amino, Thiol, and Biotin, or they could be attached to oligonucleotides
with mixed hybrid synthesis using base analogs-LNA, BNA, wobbles, RNA, and PTO. Our
expertise in the field of nucleic acid chemistry and over 30 years of experience has assisted clients in creating complex labeled hybrid oligonucleotides with the flexibility
to be adapted. As always, quality is guaranteed!
A wide variety of fluorescent dyes can be incorporated into an oligonucleotide.
Two methods of oligonucleotide labeling is offered in our laboratory:
Direct oligo labeling using derivative dyes containing cyanoethylphosphoramidte can be used for 5', internal and 3' labeling during chemical synthesis.
The attachment of fluorescent dye to the oligo is via the standard cyanoethyl phosphoramidite chemistry
containing various spacer arm lengths. Final products are HPLC purified to remove
truncated/deletion mutant products and/or oligos without the fluorescent labels.
Solid phase chemical synthesis and labeling produce higher yield and lower cost,
but labeling of such method also increses the risk of the fluorescent ring to be acid-nicked, thereby decreasing the intensity of the fluorescence. This is especially
true for 3' labeling, each time a base is added during chemical synthesis.
Certain fluorescent dyes are not compatible with phosphoramidite chemistry or can be degraded by the deprotection condition used in oligonucleotide production process. In this case, dye labeling must be conducted post-synthetically through various means of cross-linking chemistry.
Attachment of a fluorescent dye to an olligonucleotide can be achieved by using activated
dyes with oligo containing functional group such as amino, thio, aldehyde, azide,
carboxylic groups. The functionalized oligo is then purified by HPLC to remove truncated
products followed by the conjugation of oligo with activated dye with appropriate
cross linking chemistry. After conjugation, 2nd HPLC is used to remove uncoupled
dye. This method results in lower yield since dual HPLC is required, but the dye
is never exposed to acid and the rings remain intact, resulting higher fluorescent
Several categories of fluorescent dyes and their derivatives can be conjugated in our laboratory
in three standard scales: 100 nmole, 250 nmole and 1 mole.
For us to better understand your customized project, please complete our Bioconjugation Service Questionnaire. The more our chemists understand your project needs, the more accurate feedback we will be able to provide you. Provide us with your project details will enable to us to recommend the best reagents to use for your project. The most useful and readily available tools for bioconjugation projects are cross-linking reagents. A large number of cross-linkers, also known as bifunctional reagents, have been developed. There are several ways to classify the cross-linkers, such as the type of reactive group, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and the length of the spacer between reactive groups. Other factors to consider are whether the two reactive groups are the same or different (for example, heterobifunctional or homobifunctional reagents), whether the spacer is cleavable, and whether the reagents are membrane permeable or impermeable. The most accessible and abundant reactive groups in proteins are the ϵ-amino groups of lysine. Therefore, a large number of the most common cross-linkers are amino selective reagents, such as imidoesters, , sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide esters, and N-hydroxysuccinimide esters. Due to the high reactivity of the thiol group with N-ethylmaleimide, iodoacetate and a-halocarbonyl compounds, new cross-linkers have been developed that contain maleimide and a-carbonyl moieties. Usually, N-alkylmaleimides aremore stable than their N-aryl counterparts.
In addition to the reactive groups on the cross-linkers, a wide variety of connectors and spacer arms have also been developed. The nature and length of the spacer arm play an important role in the functionality. Longer spacer arms are generally more effective when coupling large proteins or those with sterically protected reactive side-chains. Other important considerations are the hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, and the conformational flexibility. Long aliphatic chains generally fold on themselves when in an aqueous environment, which makes the actual distance spanned by such linker arms less than expected. Instead, spacers that contain more rigid structures (for example, aromatic groups or cycloalkanes) should be used. These structures, however, tend to be very hydrophobic which could significantly decrease the solubility of the modified molecules or even modify some of their properties. In such cases, it is recommended to choose a spacer that contains an alkylether (PEO) chain. Bio-Synthesis offers several cross-linkers with PEO chains, such as thiol-binding homobifunctional reagents, heterobifunctional based, and their derivatives.
Within 3-5 days upon receiving your project scope, we will provide you an appropriate quotation. An order can be placed with PO (Purchase Order) or major credit cards ( ). Your credit card will be billed under Bio-Synthesis, Inc.