What is a Peptide Library?
With the advent of combinatorial chemistry and the establishment of automated solid phase synthesis technologies, it became possible to synthesize large numbers of peptides in large quantities. These libraries are useful for the development of therapeutic drugs as well as for the design of peptide libraries to allow for screening of their activity using various combinations of screening technologies such as epitope mapping among others.
By combining different resins with linker molecules and coupling methods, a wide range of libraries can now be synthesized. After synthesis, libraries can be cleaved from the resin to yield peptide libraries in solution that can be used in various formats or for spotting onto supports such as membranes made of cellulose, pvdf or coated glass slides. Furthermore, peptide libraries can also be left on the resin or beads after synthesis. The use of a defined linker has proven to be beneficial for libraries on solid supports.
Applications of Peptide Library
Solid phase peptide synthesis has been successfully used to prepare libraries for the following applications:
- Antibody epitope mapping and validation to determine the specificity of antibodies
- Identification of bioactive peptides
- Development of biological assays
- T-cell epitope mapping
- Vaccine efficacy testing
- Screening for ligand-binding activities
- Screening for antimicrobial peptide activities
- Screening for peptide-protein interactions
- Libraries for drug discovery
- Libraries for affinity optimization
- Peptide libraries for LC-MS/MS method development and validation
- Libraries for receptor-ligand studies and cellular assays
- Libraries with constrained peptides
- Libraries containing peptides with modifications such as histone peptides
- Screening for MHC class I and class II peptides
- Many others
Type of Peptide Libraries
- On-resin or off-resin libraries
- Libraries containing scrambled amino acid residue peptides
- Peptide libraries containing specific linker molecules
- Dye-labeled peptide libraries
- Libraries with special modifications
- Polyepitope peptide library for vaccine development
- Other combinatorial libraries
Literature related to this subject indicates that synthetic peptide libraries can be used to identify biologically active peptides. For example, Smith et al. in 1994 used a random synthetic library of nonamer peptides to identify peptide motifs that bind to human class I major histocompatibility complex molecules HLA-A2 and B7. The identified allele-specific motifs for class I molecules were sequenced to identify the peptides that bound to the class I protein. These methods have the potential to detect peptides which may be valuable in predicting and engineering immunomodulatory T cell epitopes.
Peptide Pools contain a selection of peptides similar to a peptide library and are ideal for efficient in vitro stimulation of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. If the pool contains 15-mer peptides with an 11 amino acid overlap, complete sequence of the respective antigen can be covered. This approach has been shown to be very effective in stimulating CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cells in various applications.
Peptide Arrays are similar to solid phase peptide libraries. Arrays of peptides may serve as valuable tools for identifying biologically active motifs as well as for profiling cellular activities, among other biological applications. Several methods for the preparation of peptide arrays have been reported. Arrays can be prepared by in situ peptide synthesis or by immobilization of functionalized peptides onto various supports.
Contact us for pre-made pools and arrays for your specific applications.
- Optimized Chemistry: Qquality, purity and batch to batch consistency
- No Cross Contamination: Directly lyophilized in 96 tube-plates or in individual vials
- Flexible Options: Crude to 95% pure from 1 to 100 mgs scales
- Comprehensive Modifications: Biotin, fluorescence, unnatural A.A.
- Stringent Quality Control: COA, MS and HPLC validation data for each
- Fast Turnaround Time: 2-3 week delivery
- Vaccine Development: Polyepitope peptide library for vaccine development
- Made in USA: No third pary outsourcing
Peptide Library Synthesis Services
Bio-Synthesis has developed several peptide library service packages with different purity levels to accommodate multiple applications. On-demand requests such as large amount, modifications or additional QC also available upon request.
* MS = MALDI mass spectrometry
* AAA = Amino Acid Analysis
Bio-Synthesis offers seven powerful online peptide library design tools for you to generate large numbers of screening peptides, which involves epitope mapping, sequence optimization, and sequence stabilization. Epitope mapping requires the construction of overlapping peptide libraries, which can be customized by adjusting the fragment length and offset number for the optimum balance between low cost and high data value. In addition to overlapping peptide libraries, Bio-Synthesis offers additional peptide library screening service tools, featuring different strategies for sequence optimization.
Overlapping Peptide Library:
The generation of peptide library by breaking the original protein or peptide into many equal-length overlapping fragments using them for linear or continuous epitope mapping and T-cell epitope determination.
Alanine Peptide Scanning Library:
The generation of peptide library in which alanine (Ala, A) is systematically substituted into each of the amino acids, which can be used to identify epitope activity.
Positional Peptide Library:
A selected position in a peptide sequence is systematically replaced with different amino acid to show the effect on the substitute amino acid at certain position.
Truncation Peptide Library:
The truncation library is been used to predict the minimum amino acid length required for optimum epitope activity.
Random Peptide Library:
It is constructed by substituting selected positions on the original peptide randomly and simultaneously with all other natural amino acids in a shot gun approach with a purpose to elucidate potential alternatives for enhanced peptide activity.
Scrambled Peptide Library:
Scramble Library is constructed by carrying out permutation on the original peptide's sequence. It has the potential to give all possible alternatives and offers and represents the highest degree of variability for peptide library.
T-cell Truncated Peptide Libraries:
Allow the testing of all possible T-cell epitopes across a protein of interest.