Peptide Synthesis Information
Peptides are available from immunograde purity (> 70 %, sufficient for generating or testing antibodies) to higher purity (+ 95 %, required in enzymological and biological activity studies and other applications). We can synthesize peptides of 200 amino acids and beyond. Longer peptides can be made through recombinant peptide technology.
- Free peptide consultation and design
- Mass spec analysis and HPLC chromatogram to confirm purity and identity
- Delivered as lyophilized powder and packaged under dry argon gas to minimize oxidation
Wide Range of Peptide Modification Options
Bio-Synthesis offers a large variety of peptide modifications, labels, and bioconjugation to other biomolecules, including:
- Phosphorylated peptides
- Citrullinated peptides
- Succinylated peptides
- Acetylated peptides
- Amidated peptides
- PEGylated peptides
We also offer a wide range of modified and special amino acids with peptide mix of 2-19 random amino acids, and peptide-D-form.
Bio-Synthesis provides end to end peptide solutions. From peptide synthesis, modification, labeling and conjugation to a wide range of biopolymers and surface attachments.
- Peptide-BSA Conjugation
- Peptide-KLH Conjugation
- Peptide-Drug Conjugation
- Peptide-Antibody Conjugation
- Peptide-small-molecule Conjugation
- Peptide Slide Printing
- Peptide-Affinity Column
- Peptide-Luminex Beads
- Peptide-Magnetic Beads
- Peptide Plates
- Peptide-protein conjugation
- Peptide-coated ELISA plates
- Antipeptide antibodies affinity purification
- Epitope mapping
- Generation of Antipeptide Antibodies
- Immunoassay development
- ELISA assay of antibody
- Antibody labeling
Extended Preparative Services
- Custom Normalized Tubes
- Peptide Arraying
- Counter-ion exchange (TFA removal Services)
- Endotoxin Testing and Removal
- pH Adjustment
- Peptide for control
- Scrambled version peptide
- Custom aliquote
- Custom Label, boxing and packaging
- Extended Preparative Services
- Amino Acid Analysis
- Peptide Sequencing
- Endotoxin Testing
- Solubility Testing
- Chromatography (HPLC, TLC, GC, IC)
- Chromatography coupled to MS (LC-MS/ESI)
- Spectroscopy (UV-Vis, IR. NMR)
- Metallic Analysis (AAS. ICP. ICP-MS)
- Titration (Acid-Base Titration. Karl Fischer Titration)
- Cleavage Tests
Peptide Synthesis Chemistry
Bio-synthesis uses liquid phase and solid phase Fmoc-based peptide chemistries in a state-of-the-art platform allowing for rapid synthesis of peptides in large quantities through a streamlined production and fully automated instrumentation set-up. After the completion of synthesis, peptides are cleaved from the resin and de-protected using standard TFA based cleavage cocktails. Peptides are precipitated from the cleavage cocktail using cold diethyl ether. The precipitate is subsequently washed with cold ether and dissolved in a buffer or solution allowing for efficient purification and lyophilization. Most custom peptides are purified by HPLC using reverse phase C4 and C18 columns. Other purification methods (e.g., ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography) are also available as needed. To achieve a highly pure product, peptides are purified by preparative reverse phase HPLC, freeze dried and packaged before shipping. QC is performed using analytical liquid chromatography and mass analysis by MALDI-MS and provided for every peptide to ensure the highest quality of the final product.
Peptide Synthesis Services
- Synthesis of micro to high throughput peptide arrays and peptide libraries
- Specialty peptide modifications
- Ultra long peptides
- Polyepitope peptides
- Over 10,000 ready to use catalog peptides
- Full range of analyses including LC-MS/MS, MALDI-MS, HPLC, AAA, NMR, peptide sequencing
- Peptide content determination to confirm identity and to insure quality
- Most peptides are shipped within five to seven working days accompanied by a Quality Assurance certificate
- Consistent Results: >99% success rate in delivering quality peptides stored in argon gas stabilizer
- No Limitation: short or long peptides, chemical or recombinant peptide technology
- Large number of modifications
- Wide range of purities: from crude to >99% pure
- Quality Control: all peptides are analyzed by MS and analytical HPLC
- Rapid Turnaround: most custom peptides are delivered in 1 week
- Free peptide design tools
- Competitive pricing
Proven Technical Portfolio
- Peptide-Extremer up to 200 amino acids.
- Wide purity ranges from crude to >99%
- Scalable from ug to kg
- Single to high throughput peptides
- Specialty peptides: stapled, branched, cyclic, peptoid and others
- Peptide post-translational modifications
- Chromogenic/fluorogenic substrates
- Unusual amino acids and their derivatives
- Wide variety of modifications and labels
- Peptide Bioconjugates: biopolymer, small drug molecule, nanoparticles and solid immobilization
- Peptide microarray fabrication
Areas of Research for Synthetic Peptides
Peptides are smaller than proteins but often contain part of a protein's sequence. As such, they can be used as research tools to study their effects in biological systems. Specifically, peptides may function as signaling molecules via their interaction with specific receptors, for example as hormones or cytokines. Also, peptides can be used for therapeutic purposes.
The following is a list of areas of research for synthetic peptides.
- Therapeutic peptide drugs
- Cell-penetrating peptides
- Peptide based FRET-probes
- Peptides for drug delivery
- Vaccine development (antigenic subunit)
- Peptide based conjugates
- Protease inhibitors
- Peptide neuromodulator studies
- Kinase libraries
- Protease substrate libraries (FRET)
- Alanine walking
- Binding studies
- Enzymology and biological activity screening
- Immunization for antibody production
- Peptide array and microarray printing
- Biophysical studies
Bio-Synthesis can assist customers in selecting the appropriate peptide sequence, purity and quantity appropriate to your needs. Sequences are analyzed for hydrophobicity at pH 2 and pH 6.8, aggregation potential, and other known chemistry issues that may arise due to the peptide's amino acid composition including a hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity plot (Hoop-Woods and Kyte-Doolittle algorithms). For antibody production, we include antigenic index (Jameson-Wolf) and surface probability evaluation. We provide feedback on the feasibility of the candidate sequences with respect to stability, solubility and price. The customer is notified of any potential issues ahead of time so that sequence modifications can be made before starting synthesis. Our peptide design tool provides analysis output for peptide sequences. If specifications of the order are not achieved, the customer is notified immediately and given advice for redesigning the sequence or exploring alternative chemistries.
When requesting a quote, a peptide assessment, or to place an order, please specify the needed amount and the desired purity level. If you need assistance, just ask us, we are here to help. Please note that your sequence information is always kept in strict confidence.
Each peptide is shipped with a Certificate of Analysis which includes details of the peptide, the quantity and purity supplied, and helpful information on the solubility of the peptide in the buffers used during purification. We also provide a printout of the analytical HPLC profile and MALDI-TOF-MS or electrospray MS data. Our peptides are packed under dry argon gas to minimize oxidation or other types of degradation during shipment and storage. After opening, we recommend that peptides shall be stored dry in a freezer.
Peptide Purification and QC
All peptides are analyzed by MALDI Mass Spectrometry to determine the molecular weight of the synthesized peptide. Comparison of the theoretical molecular weight with the determined molecular weight confirms the absence of amino acid deletion or double coupling. MALDI is an excellent method for determining the presence of the desired product but is inadequate for the determination of purity. Due to the variant efficiencies of peptide ionization in the MALDI instrument, peak intensities in MALDI spectra are not necessarily quantitative. For this reason all non-crude peptides are analyzed by Reverse-Phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) in order to determine purity. Additional QC analysis such as amino acid analysis, NMR, CE, as well as peptide content determination may be performed to confirm the quality of custom peptides.
Successful synthesis depends on the sequence of the amino acids. Likewise, the coupling efficiency of amino acids in the sequence and ultimate purity of the synthesized product is also related to the sequence. Impurities such as salts, deletion peptides (created due to incomplete coupling), protecting groups and modified peptides can range from 10-50%.
Purification of synthetic peptides is carried out by HPLC using reverse phase C4 and C18 columns. Alternate purification methods (e.g., ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography) are used as needed. For purity requirements of >95%, we conduct the HPLC analysis at a gradient of 0-60% over a period of 45 minutes. This insures that peptide validation reveals even the smallest of impurities. Peptides meeting or exceeding the purity requirements are checked again by MALDI or additional extended quality control or preparative services.
Focus on Quality
We constantly seek ways to improve our quality systems and welcome any suggestions from our customers. Our commitment to quality is ongoing throughout the manufacturing process. The process begins with raw material quality inspection (RMQ), in-process quality inspection (IPQ) and on to final product quality inspection (FPQ) which are subject to a battery of analytical tests. Each peptide is accompanied with a certificate of analysis which includes details of the peptide, quantity and purity supplied, and helpful information on the solubility of the peptide in the buffers used during purification. Purified peptides also include a printout of the analytical HPLC profile and electrospray MS data. Peptides are also shipped with "A guide to handling peptides" and "Interpreting the results of peptide analysis".
Peptides are packed under dry argon gas to minimize oxidation or other types of degradation during shipment and storage. After opening, we recommend that peptides be stored dry in a freezer (details given in our technical guide to handling peptides; a copy is shipped with each peptide).
Extended QC (optional)
- Chromatography (HPLC, TLC, GC, IC)
- Chromatography coupled to MS (LC-MS/ESI)
- Spectroscopy (UV-Vis, IR, NMR)
- Metallic Analysis (AAS, ICP, ICP-MS)
- Elemental Analysis
- Titration (Acid-Base Titration, Karl Fischer Titration)
- Amino acid analysis
- Peptide sequencing
Synthetic polypeptides have spurred the development of different applications in biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology and medicine. Synthetic peptides may be used in epitope-specific antibodies against pathogenic proteins, the study of protein functions and identification and characterization of proteins. Furthermore, synthetic peptides are used to study enzyme-substrate interactions within important enzyme classes such as kinases and proteases, which play a crucial role in cell signaling.
In diagnostics, a set of homologous synthetic peptide binding ligands would be useful in cases such as directing reagents to particular epitopes in a protein, detection of peptide hormones, and many other applications. In therapeutic applications, peptide drugs are either resembled as naturally-occurring peptides or as altered natural peptides. The analog is known as an agonist if more biochemically active than the original peptide; if it has the reverse effect, the analog is known as an antagonist.
Synthetic peptides are used as standards and as reagents in mass spectrometry (MS)-based applications. Synthetic peptides play a central role in MS-based discovery, characterization and quantitation of proteins, especially those that serve as early biomarkers for diseases.
- Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody production
- Identification of post-translational modification
- Antibody epitope mapping
- New techniques for separation by chromatography/electrophoresis
- Antibody-antigen interactions
- Enzyme specificity and enzymatic mechanisms
- Immunization and quantitative receptor-ligand interactions
- Biological effects of defined peptides
- ELISA standards for measuring titers of antibodies
- Blocking and competition assays of proteases
- Binding and functional assay studies
- Epitope mapping Structure, dynamics, and folding of peptides and proteins via NMR
Peptide-Based Drug Development
Bio-Synthesis offers a broad range of products and services for life science research in genomics.
Peptide Immuno Tools
Biomarker Discovery, Epitope Validation, Immuno Monitoring.
Peptides, Arrays and Libraries
Screening & Discovery, Research Discovery Peptides, pep-CHIP
Spiked Isotope Peptides, Peptide-in-Plate (96 well plates), pep-CHIP Microarrays
Enzyme Profiling Services
Peptide substrate for kinase, protease and phosphatase profiling in a variety of formats
Peptide/Protein Identification, Peptide/Protein Quantification, Peptide Protein Characterization