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Gold Conjugation
Gold Conjugation

Custom Gold Nanoparticle Conjugation

Bio-Synthesis provides custom gold nanoparitcle conjugation services using various type of gold nanoparticles such as nanogold, undecagold or colloidal gold to primary antibodies, peptides, protein, oligonucleotides, small moelcuels, or other biomolecule. Relying on a state-of-the art chemial biology facilities and over 30 years of combine experience in providing high quality gold nanoparticle conjugate complexes, each custom gold conjugation project is metriculously monitored according to Bio-Synthesis's stringent quality assurance and quality control standard that are fully backed up by an bioanalytical laboratory.

Our Gold Conjugate portfolios

  • Protein-gold donjugates
  • Antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles
  • Lectin-gold conjugates
  • (Strep)avidin-gold conjugates
  • DNA-gold nanoparticle conjugates
  • RNA-gold nanoparticle conjugates
  • Peptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles

Applications of Gold Conjugates

Gold nanoparticles are incorporated into numerous technologies and applications. Some of the most common gold nanoparticle applications are ideal for:

  • Diagnostics: Gold nanoparticles are readily conjugated to antibodies, peptides, synthetic oligonucleotides, and other proteins due to the affinity of functional groups on the gold surface. Nanogold conjugates have been widely incorporated into diagnostic applications, where their bright red color is used in home and point-of-care test such as the home pregnancy tests.
  • Therapeutics: Gold colloid nanoparticles are being investigated as agents for photothermal- and microwave-based therapeutics. Typically, this involves functionalizing the nanoparticle surface with an antibody or antibody fragment that specifically targets tumor cells. After reaching the tumor, the nanoparticles are illuminated with infrared or microwave radiation, both of which pass through skin and tissue, causing the nanoparticles to heat up, destroying the tumor cells.
  • Electron Microscopy: Conjugation of antibody with gold nanoparticle has specific targeting, when used to stain tissues and cells for subsequent imaging using a tansmission electron microscope. These electron-dense and visually opaque nature of gold labels provide an excellent contrast agent for TEM imaging, as has a much larger electron density than biomolecules. Various size of gold particles can be used to labeled with different atnibody for multiparameter experiments.

Our Benefits

The use of Bio-Synthesis's unique expertise in bioconjugation chemistries, we ensures high quality conjugates are produced.

  • No gold particle clusters
  • Stable and reproducible
  • No non-specific binding
  • Optimized to meet you sensitivity specifications
  • Small scale to bulk manufacturing

Contact our Technical Service Center at 800.220.0627 or contact us online with your detail project specifications, a project manager will be assigned to help you with design and develop an appropreate synthetic method for your specific needs.

Sample Submission Requirement:

Biomolecule supplied by customers should be sufficiently pure. Please provide 3 mgs of puriifed lyophilized antibody (or your protein) with the necessary data for purity assessment. Commercial available biopolymers can be supplied by customers or synthesize or ordered through Bio-Synthesis.

Gold Conjugate Service Descriptions

Price: Price varied based on project specifications. Price does not includes cost of small molecule or biopolymer which requireed to be supplied by customer or order through Bio-Synthesis from a commercial vendor. Some of the small molecules are commerically available in an activated form. For non-active molecules, Bio-Synthesis can assit with the design and, if deemed necessary, biopolymer modification to introduce additional functional groups and extra linkers. Please contact us for a quote.

Protein/Antibody-Gold Nanoparticles Conjugation

Due to variations in affinity between diferrent proteins and the gold nanoparticle surface, there is no guaranteed final volume of product. An average yield of 10 ml of your protein-gold nanoparticle conjugate is 3 ODs. This amound woudl be enough to be probe 100 dot blot strps using 15 ml of a 1:100 diluted conjugate per strip.

Oligonucleotide-Gold Nanoparticle Conjugation

Oligonucleotide length and sequence might influence final yield of gold nanoparticle conjugates, an average yield is 1 OD in 30 ml of oligonucleotide-gold conjugates.

Chemistry:

Coupling of preactivated small molecule and biomolecule with chemical reactive groups such as Amine reaction with NHS or other active esters. Sulfhydryl reaction with maleimide or alkyl halide containing compounds.

Service Specification:

After standard desalting, or purification, a small percent of heterogeneous products containing single or multi-site conjugate per molecule may exist.

Material:

nanogold, undecagold or colloidal gold size of your choice

Procedure:

After labeling, final conjugates must first be isolated from excess or unreacted reagent by gel filtration or dialysis. In many cases, simple dialysis may suffice to remove unreacted reagent from the reaction solution. Additional purification technique such as gel filtration chromatography may also be used to either remove excess reagent or isolate and characterized the cross-linked product. With exception of dialysis, if the protein/antibody is significantly larger (>3-fold) than the modifying or coupling reagent. For reagents (mostly protein and other biological molecules) that are similar in size or larger than the antibody, one must resort to other purification techniques such as affinity chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography.

The conjugates were characterized using UV–visible (UV/Vis) absorption spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS and the biological activities of the conjugated products were also assessed using an immunoassay format and electrochemical measurements with an additional fee.

Ordering and Submitting Requests for Bioconjugation Services

For us to better understand your customized project, please complete our Bioconjugation Service Questionnaire. The more our chemists understand your project needs, the more accurate feedback we will be able to provide you.  Provide us with your project details will enable to us to recommend the best reagents to use for your project.  The most useful and readily available tools for bioconjugation projects are cross-linking reagents. A large number of cross-linkers, also known as bifunctional reagents, have been developed.  There are several ways to classify the cross-linkers, such as the type of reactive group, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and the length of the spacer between reactive groups.  Other factors to consider are whether the two reactive groups are the same or different (for example, heterobifunctional or homobifunctional reagents), whether the spacer is cleavable, and whether the reagents are membrane permeable or impermeable.  The most accessible and abundant reactive groups in proteins are the ϵ-amino groups of lysine.  Therefore, a large number of the most common cross-linkers are amino selective reagents, such as imidoesters, sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide esters, and N-hydroxysuccinimide esters.  Due to the high reactivity of the thiol group with N-ethylmaleimide, iodoacetate and a-halocarbonyl compounds, new cross-linkers have been developed that contain maleimide and a-carbonyl moieties.  Usually, N-alkylmaleimides aremore stable than their N-aryl counterparts.

In addition to the reactive groups on the cross-linkers, a wide variety of connectors and spacer arms have also been developed.  The nature and length of the spacer arm play an important role in the functionality.  Longer spacer arms are generally more effective when coupling large proteins or those with sterically protected reactive side-chains.  Other important considerations are the hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, and the conformational flexibility.  Long aliphatic chains generally fold on themselves when in an aqueous environment, which makes the actual distance spanned by such linker arms less than expected.  Instead, spacers that contain more rigid structures (for example, aromatic groups or cycloalkanes) should be used.  These structures, however, tend to be very hydrophobic which could significantly decrease the solubility of the modified molecules or even modify some of their properties.  In such cases, it is recommended to choose a spacer that contains an alkylether (PEO) chain.  Bio-Synthesis offers several cross-linkers with PEO chains, such as thiol-binding homobifunctional reagents, heterobifunctional based, and their derivatives.

Within 3-5 days upon receiving your project scope, we will provide you an appropriate quotation. An order can be placed with PO (Purchase Order) or major credit cards ( ). Your credit card will be billed under Bio-Synthesis, Inc.