Unnatural / Unusual Amino Acids
Unnatural / Unusual Amino Acids

Unnatural or unusual amino acids are not naturally encoded amino acids. These are non-proteinogenic amino acids which can occur naturally in plant or bacteria post-translationally or, are chemically synthesized as pharmacological motifs. Unnatural amino acids are widely used in combinatorial libraries or as chiral building blocks. These modified amino acids often contribute to special biological activity, and are often incorporate into therapeutic peptidomimetic ligands for enhance peptide pharmacological activity and potency.

Unusual or unnatural amino acid modified peptides perform the following functions:

  • Improve selectivity
  • Improve receptor binding
  • Modify activity (agonists and antagonists)
  • Increase in vivo half-life
  • Enhance transport across cell membranes

Bio-Synthesis is committed to become your peptide based drug discovery partner by providing a wide range of unnatural, non-standard amino acid peptide modifications. We routinely incorporate unnatural/unusual amino acids into peptide synthesis using D-amino acids, N-methyl amino acids, homo amino acids, alpha-methyl amino acids, beta (homo) amino acids, gamma amino acids, helix/turn stabilizing compound or backbone modification peptoides. Natural occurring unusual amino acids such as citrulline (Cit), hydroxyproline (Hyp), beta-alanine, ornithine (Orn), norleucine (Nle), 3-nitrotyrosine, pyroglutamic acid (Pyr), nitroarginine are also routinely incorporated to our peptides. If these non-standard amino acids are not available commercially, Bio-Synthesis is able to synthesize special amino acids.

We offer the following unnatural amino acid types:

  • Alanine Modified Amino Acid Analogs
  • Alicyclic Amino Acids Analogs
  • Aromatic Amino Acids Analogs
  • Aspartic Acid Analogs
  • Beta-Amino Acids Analogs
  • Cysteine Amino Acid Analogs
  • DAB (2,4-Diaminobutyric Acid) Analogs
  • DAP (2,3-Diaminopropionic Acid) Analogs
  • Depsipeptides
  • Glutamic Acid Amino Acid Analogs
  • Glutamine Amino Acid Analogs
  • Glycine Amino Acid Analogs
  • Heterocyclic Amino Acid Analogs
  • Histidine Amino Acid Analogs
  • Homo-Amino Acid Analogs
  • Isoleucine Amino Acid Analogs
  • Leucine Amino Acid Analogs
  • Linear Core Amino Acid Analogs
  • Lysine Amino Acid Analogs
  • Methionine Amino Acid Analogs
  • N-Methyl Amino Acids Analogs
  • Norleucine Amino Acid Analogs
  • Norvaline Amino Acid Analogs
  • Ornithine Amino Acid Analogs
  • Statine Amino Acid Analogs
  • Penicillamine Amino Acid Analogs
  • PEGylated Amino Acids
  • Phenylalanine Amino Acid Analogs
  • Phenylglycine Amino Acid Analogs
  • Proline Amino Acid Analogs
  • Pyroglutamine Amino Acid Analogs
  • Serine Amino Acid Analogs
  • Threonine Amino Acid Analogs
  • Tryptophan Amino Acid Analogs
  • Tyrosine Amino Acid Analogs
  • Valine Amino Acid Analogs

  • Post-Translational Modification (PTM) Modified Amino Acids

    • Deiminated Arginines (Citrulline) : DL-Citrulline, L-Citrulline
    • Methylated Aminod Acids : Lysine(Me), Lysine(Me2), Lysine(Me3), Arginine(Me), Arginine(Me)2 asymmetrical, Arginine(Me)2 symmetrical
    • Phosphorylated Amino Acids : Phosphoserine, phosphothreonine, phosphotyrosine