Enhanced Diagnostic Tools
Bio-Synthesis offers custom conjugation of liposome by covalently attached peptides,
oligonucleotides, antibodies, oligosaccharides or drugs to the surface of liposomes
or lipid emulsions. These conjugates are being put to use as macromolecular
carriers to encapsulate cosmetic, drugs and fluorescent detection reagents. Also, as vehicles to transport nucleic acids, peptides and proteins to cellular site in vivo. Antibodies
can be attached to liposomal surfaces and used to create large antigen-specific
complexes to target cancer cells in vivo, to enhance detectability in immunoassay
systems and as multivalent cross-bridges in avidin-biotin-based assays.
Relying on a state-of-the art chemical biology facilities and over 30 years of combined
experience in providing high quality Lipid-biopolymer complexes, each custom project
is meticulously monitored according to Bio-Synthesis's stringent quality assurance
and quality control standard that are fully backed up by a bioanalytical laboratory.
The end-products of liposome technology are widely used in cosmetic retail markets,
fluorescent detection reagents for the diagnosis of disease, as therapeutic agents
by transport nucleic acids, peptides, or proteins to cellular site in vivo, as vaccines
carrier to elicit protective immunity by conjugate antibody to liposome as large
antigen-specific complexes for generation of antibodies.
Application of Lipoconjugates
Bio-Synthesis may use your oligosaccharides for preparation of the conjugates or
in some cases it could prepare the whole conjugate, including the oligosaccharide
moiety. For the preparation of oligopeptide and oligonucleotide glycoconjugates
these compounds are modified during solid phase synthesis to introduce a spacer
carrying a functional group that can be used for subsequent cross-linking with the
oligosaccharides. Depending on the nature of the oligosaccharide and the peptide
or oligonucleotide, the length and hydrophilicity of the spacer would be decided
to maximize the interactions of these compounds with their receptors.
Other useful tools in biological studies are those compounds where the oligosaccharide
is coupled to a fluorescent label such as fluorescein, rhodamine, Texas red and
others, either directly or via a spacer. Fluorescent compounds can be detected by
fluorescence microscopy, FACS machine, and spectrofluorometry. Other tagging methods
involve the use of colloidal gold and ferritin, both compounds that can be detected
by electron microscopy. Oligosaccharides can also be conjugated to different lipids
to yield glycolipids that can be incorporated into either micelles or liposomes,
with the latter being effective drug carriers.
The same methods used to prepare glycoconjugates of oligosaccharides can be applied
to native polysaccharides.
Based on the needs for sensitivity, Bio-Synthesis can design a method to label these macromolecules without interfering with their interactions with other molecules.
Bio-Synthesis’ custom carbohydrate bioconjugation services includes experimental design, development of protocols and procedure for the preparation of conjugates requested by our customers. For the last two decades, we have accumulated a portfolio
of modifications and conjugation of carbohydrates to peptides, oligonucleotides and
many other small or large molecules.
If you can't find what you want?, contact our Technical Service Center at 800.220.0627
or contact us online with your detailed project specifications. A project manager
will be assigned to help you with the design and develop an appropriate synthetic method
for your specific needs.
Price varies based on the project specifications. Price does not include cost of small molecule or biopolymer which is required to be order through Bio-Synthesis from a commercial vendor. Some of the small molecules or biomolecules are commercially available in an activated form. For non-active molecules, Bio-Synthesis can assist with the design and, if deemed necessary, biopolymer modification to introduce additional functional groups and extra linkers, spacers. Please contact us for a quote.
Coupling of preactivated label and biomolecule with chemical reactive groups amine,
carboxylates and hydroxyls.
Service Specification: After standard desalting, or purification,
a small percent of heterogeneous products containing single or multi-site conjugate
per molecule may exist.
We can attached there fatty acid derivatives to your biomolecules.
Fatty acid derivative
After conjugation, final conjugates must first be isolated
from excess or unreacted reagent by gel filtration or dialysis. In many cases, simple
dialysis may suffice to remove unreacted reagent from the reaction solution. Finally,
concentration and labeling ratio determination (if applicable).
The custom prepared product is quality controlled by Bio-Synthesis according to
our in-house standards. These are tailored for each individual assignment. The custom
conjugate is approved only when both sets of quality control criteria have been
For us to better understand your customized project, please complete our Bioconjugation Service Questionnaire. The more our chemists understand your project needs, the more accurate feedback we will be able to provide you. Provide us with your project details will enable to us to recommend the best reagents to use for your project. The most useful and readily available tools for bioconjugation projects are cross-linking reagents. A large number of cross-linkers, also known as bifunctional reagents, have been developed. There are several ways to classify the cross-linkers, such as the type of reactive group, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and the length of the spacer between reactive groups. Other factors to consider are whether the two reactive groups are the same or different (for example, heterobifunctional or homobifunctional reagents), whether the spacer is cleavable, and whether the reagents are membrane permeable or impermeable. The most accessible and abundant reactive groups in proteins are the ϵ-amino groups of lysine. Therefore, a large number of the most common cross-linkers are amino selective reagents, such as imidoesters, , sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide esters, and N-hydroxysuccinimide esters. Due to the high reactivity of the thiol group with N-ethylmaleimide, iodoacetate and a-halocarbonyl compounds, new cross-linkers have been developed that contain maleimide and a-carbonyl moieties. Usually, N-alkylmaleimides aremore stable than their N-aryl counterparts.
In addition to the reactive groups on the cross-linkers, a wide variety of connectors and spacer arms have also been developed. The nature and length of the spacer arm play an important role in the functionality. Longer spacer arms are generally more effective when coupling large proteins or those with sterically protected reactive side-chains. Other important considerations are the hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, and the conformational flexibility. Long aliphatic chains generally fold on themselves when in an aqueous environment, which makes the actual distance spanned by such linker arms less than expected. Instead, spacers that contain more rigid structures (for example, aromatic groups or cycloalkanes) should be used. These structures, however, tend to be very hydrophobic which could significantly decrease the solubility of the modified molecules or even modify some of their properties. In such cases, it is recommended to choose a spacer that contains an alkylether (PEO) chain. Bio-Synthesis offers several cross-linkers with PEO chains, such as thiol-binding homobifunctional reagents, heterobifunctional based, and their derivatives.
Within 3-5 days upon receiving your project scope, we will provide you an appropriate quotation. An order can be placed with PO (Purchase Order) or major credit cards ( ). Your credit card will be billed under Bio-Synthesis, Inc.