Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. Over 5000 HIV-related peptides have been synthesized, that inhibit different stages of viral life cycle.
In 1983, two separate researchers Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier independently declared that a novel retrovirus infecting AIDS patients. Several HIV related peptides including peptides (15-mers or 20-mers) of HIV glycoprotein 160 (gp160), gp120W16D, MN envelope (env) consensus B tat, consensus B VIF, HXB2 gag, SIVmac239, SIVmac239env, SIVmac239 gag have been used to study HIV life cycle. C34 peptide of Gp41 HIV Fragment is known as HR2, belongs to the helical region of gp41 of HIV, C-terminal heptad repeat 2 (HR2) defined as C helix or C peptide. It is known that HIV-1 enters cells by membrane fusion, C34 gp41 peptide is a potent inhibitors of HIV-1 fusion 1,2. The 86 amino acid trans-activator (Tat) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an RNA-binding transcriptional regulator. HIV-1 Tat proteins (wild type and Thr40Lys mutant) and the HIV-1 Tat peptide fragments Tat(32–48) and Tat(32–72) were chemically synthesized and used for HIV studies 3.
HIV (gp120) fragment (254-274), this fragment with sequence homology to a domain of the external envelope glycoprotein (gp120) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is important for HIV infectivity and antibody neutralization 4. HIV (gp120) fragment (421-438), derived from the CD4 attachment region of HIV gp120, inhibited the syncytial formation in vitro 5. HIV-1 gag protein p17 (76-84), HLA-A*0201-restricted immunodominant CD8 epitope of the HIV gag protein used for the characterization of CD8+ -T cells of HIV-positiv patients 6. HIV-1 rev protein (34-50), this arginine-rich fragment interacts specifically with RNA. It has been shown that rev protein and rev protein (34-50) bind IIB RNA with a similar dissociation constant of approx. 10 nM 7.
The HIV type-1 belongs to the family Retroviridae and consists of two basic components: a core of ribonucleic acid (RNA), called the genome, and a protei