Syndyphalins are enkephalin-like synthetic tripeptides with analgesic action 1,2.
Kiso, et al., in 1981, synthesized tripeptide hydroxyalkylamide derivatives in order to obtain more stable and potent ENK analogues and reported that a simple peptide, Tyr-D-Met(O)-Gly-MePheol, named 'syndyphalin(SD)-25' was 23300 times and 9 times as active as morphine in the in vitro assay using guinea pig ileum and in the tail flick analgesic test after administration, respectively 3.
Syndyphalin-33: Tyr-D-Met(O)-Gly-MPA; (Tyr-D-Met(O)-Gly-N-methylphenethylamide;Syndyphalin-25: Tyr-D-Met (O)-Gly-MePheol.
Mode of Action
The ability of naloxone to block SD33-stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion suggests that this peptide acts via µopiate receptors 1.
1. Nakamura H, Kiso Y, Motoyoshi S, Yoshida N, Ishii K, Yokoyama Y, Kadokawa T, Shimizu M (1982). Analgesic and other pharmacological activities of an enkephalin analogue, syndyphalin (SD)-25. Eur J Pharmacol., 85(2):133-142.
2. Buonomo FC, Tou JS, Kaempfe LA (1991). Stimulation of somatotropin secretion following peripheral administration of the tripeptide, syndyphalin 33 in sheep, pigs and rats. Life Sci., 48(20):1953-1961.
3. Kiso Y, Yamaguchi M, Akita T, Moritoki H, Takei M, Nakamura H (1981). Super-active Enkephalin Analogues.Simple Tripeptide Hydroxyalkylamides Exhibit Surprisingly High and Long-lasting Opioid Activities. Naturwissenschaften, 68(4):210-212.
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