Gemcitabine modified base can be incorporated at any position within an oligonucleotide at Bio-Synthesis, Inc.  Gemcitabine (2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine) is an anticancer chemotherapy drug that has been used to treat various human cancers including pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and esophageal cancer. The prodrug gemcitabine is a pyrimidine analogue consisting of a 2-deoxy-2,2-difluororibose sugar and a cytosine base. After cell entry by transporters, it becomes phosphorylated by deoxycytidine kinase to dFdCMP, which then undergoes further phosphorylation to dFdCTP. Its incorporation into DNA introduces error, resulting in the inhibition of DNA replication and cell death. The error occurs as the incorporated dFdCMP is difficult to remove from template by the proofreading activity associated with DNA polymerase. When oligodeoxynucleotide containing dFdCMP or dCMP at the terminal or penultimate position were compared, the rate of excision of 3'-terminal deoxynucleotide by the 3'-->5' exonuclease of the Klenow fragment was significantly slower for primers containing dFdCMP than those containing dCMP. In contrast, the presence of dFdCMP in the primer did not affect the ability of the Klenow fragment to polymerize significantly. Taken together, these two factors contribute to the introduction of error by gemcitabine. The other antimetabolite mechanism of gemcitabine results from the inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase by the dFdCDP derivative. Its side effects include neuropathy, nausea, bone marrow suppression and others.

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Product Information


Product Name:

2',2'-Difluorodeoxycytidine (Gemcitabine) dFdC Modified Oligo




Bio-Synthesis Inc. Oligo Structure



Delivery Format:


Shipping Conditions:

Room Temperature

Storage Conditions:

-20°C To -70°C
Oligonucleotides are stable in solution at 4°C for up to 2 weeks. Properly reconstituted material stored at -20°C should be stable for at least 6 months. Dried DNA (when kept at -20°C) in a nuclease-free environment should be stable for years.


1. Excision of 2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine (gemcitabine) monophosphate residues from DNA. Gandhi V1, Legha J, Chen F, Hertel LW, Plunkett W.
2. 2',2'-Difluoro-deoxycytidine (gemcitabine) incorporation into RNA and DNA of tumour cell lines;Ruiz van Haperen VW1, Veerman G, Vermorken JB, Peters GJ.