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Cyclin D1 promotes nuclear DNA synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of the pRb tumor suppressor. Herein, cyclin D1 deficiency increased mitochondrial size and activity that was rescue by cyclin D1 in a Cdk-dependent manner. Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), which induces nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes, was repressed in expression and activity by cyclin D1. Cyclin D1-dependent kinase phosphorylates NRF-1 at S47. Cyclin D1 abundance thus coordinates nuclear DNA synthesis and mitochondrial function.
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