Regulation of cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channel surface expression by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

Sierra A1, Zhu Z, Sapay N, Sharotri V, Kline CF, Luczak ED, Subbotina E, Sivaprasadarao A, Snyder PM, Mohler PJ, Anderson ME, Vivaudou M, Zingman LV, Hodgson-Zingman DM.
J Biol Chem. 2013 Jan 18;288(3):1568-81. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.429548. Epub 2012 Dec 6.

Cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels are key sensors and effectors of the metabolic status of cardiomyocytes. Alteration in their expression impacts their effectiveness in maintaining cellular energy homeostasis and resistance to injury. We sought to determine how activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a central regulator of calcium signaling, translates into reduced membrane expression and current capacity of cardiac K(ATP) channels. We used real-time monitoring of K(ATP) channel current density, immunohistochemistry, and biotinylation studies in isolated hearts and cardiomyocytes from wild-type and transgenic mice as well as HEK cells expressing wild-type and mutant K(ATP) channel subunits to track the dynamics of K(ATP) channel surface expression. Results showed that activation of CaMKII triggered dynamin-dependent internalization of K(ATP) channels. This process required phosphorylation of threonine at 180 and 224 and an intact (330)YSKF(333) endocytosis motif of the K(ATP) channel Kir6.2 pore-forming subunit. A molecular model of the μ2 subunit of the endocytosis adaptor protein, AP2, complexed with Kir6.2 predicted that μ2 docks by interaction with (330)YSKF(333) and Thr-180 on one and Thr-224 on the adjacent Kir6.2 subunit. Phosphorylation of Thr-180 and Thr-224 would favor interactions with the corresponding arginine- and lysine-rich loops on μ2. We concluded that calcium-dependent activation of CaMKII results in phosphorylation of Kir6.2, which promotes endocytosis of cardiac K(ATP) channel subunits. This mechanism couples the surface expression of cardiac K(ATP) channels with calcium signaling and reveals new targets to improve cardiac energy efficiency and stress resistance.

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