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Retro Inverso Peptides

 Retro-inverso peptides are linear peptides whose amino acid sequence is reversed and the α-center chirality of the amino acid subunits is inverted as well. Usually, these types of peptides are designed by including D-amino acids in the reverse sequence to help maintain side chain topology similar to that of the original L-amino acid peptide and make them more resistant to proteolytic degradation. Other reported synonyms for these peptides in the scientific literature are: Retro-Inverso Peptides, All-D-Retro Peptides, Retro-Enantio Peptides, Retro-Inverso Analogs, Retro-Inverso Analogues, Retro-Inverso Derivatives, and Retro-Inverso Isomers. D-amino acids represent conformational mirror images of natural L-amino acids occurring in natural proteins present in biological systems. Peptides that contain D-amino acids have advantages over peptides that just contain L-amino acids. In general, these types of peptides are less susceptible to proteolytic degradation and have a longer effective time when used as pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, the insertion of D-amino acids in selected sequence regions as sequence blocks containing only D-amino acids or in-between L-amino acids allows the design of peptide based drugs that are bioactive and possess increased bioavailability in addition to being resistant to proteolysis. Furthermore, if properly designed, retro-inverso peptides can have binding characteristics similar to L-peptides. Retro-inverso peptides are useful candidates for the study of protein-protein interactions by designing peptidomimetics that mimic the shape of peptide epitopes, protein-protein, or protein-peptide interfases. Retro-inverso-peptides are attractive alternatives to L-peptides used as pharmaceuticals. These of peptide have been reported to elicit lower immunogenic responses compared to L-peptides. The availability of modern chemical synthesis methods now allows the routine synthesis of these types of peptides.