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What is DNA?

 What is DNA?


DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a macromolecular linear polymer carrying the genetic information in cells. DNA is a polymer of deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates. The genetic information contains the information needed for the cells to function. The molecular or chemical basis is that DNA is made up of two long chains of oligonucleotides. The two complementary chains are twisted into a double helix. The specific arrangement of the four types of nucleic acid, Adenine [A], Thymine [T], Cytosine [C] and Guanine [G]) along the DNA backbone encode the genetic information. In cells, DNA is produced by a process known as replication. DNA can also be synthesized using various in-vitro methods, such as PCR, or by chemical synthesis in a oligonucleotide synthesizer. 


Each organism has its own DNA in its genome. Common methods for studying DNA are methods such as PCR that use synthetic oligonucleotides. The development of sophisticated methods now used in molecular biology has led to many applications based on synthetic oligonucleotides.

Nucleotides are the molecular building blocks or subunits of nucleic acids found in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymers. The nucleotide subunits are also called monomers.  The synthesis of purines, pyrimidines, and nucleotides is an important part of mammalian metabolism and errors in purine and pyrimidine synthesis and metabolism, inborn or acquired, often are the cause of disease or ultimately lead to disease.

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