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Definition
Adrenomedullin (AM) is a pluripotent peptide and a hypotensive substance extracted from human adrenal tumour. Due to its origin of discovery, i.e. the medulla of the adrenal gland, the peptide is named adrenomedullin.

Discovery
AM was initially isolated from phaechromcytoma cells in 1993 by Kitmura K and his associates1.

Classification
AM is a member of the calcitonin family of peptides. In teleost fish, AM forms an independent subfamily consisting of five members viz. (AM1–AM5). This teleost AM family comprises three groups, AM1/AM4, AM2/AM3, and AM5 2,3.

Structural Characteristics
The peptide consists of 52 amino acids with a 6-member ring structure linked by a disulfide bond between amino acid 16 and 21 and amidated-COOH terminal4. It has 27 % homology with the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP).

Mechanism of action
AM peptides act through specific receptors in the plasma membrane to activate adenylate cyclase activity and modulate Ca2+ flux in the target cells. The intracellular free Ca2+ increases on the activation of phospholipase C and formation of inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate in the endothelial cells. The intracellular increase of Ca2+ activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase which leads to vascular relaxation5.

Function
AM is the most potent endogenous vasodilatory peptide found in the body6. They increase the tolerance of cells to oxidative stress, hypoxic injury and angiogenesis. It plays an important role in neurotransmission and ovarian function and in kidney, it acts as a diuretic and natriuretic7. AM is considered to play an important endocrine role in various tissues in maintaining electrolyte and fluid homeostasis8. It is used in the diagnosis and treatment of preeclampsia, type II diabetic patients and to promote fetal growth. They also play an important role in the regulation of insulin secretion and blood glucose metabolism.

References

 

1.     Kitamura K, Kangawa K, Kawamoto M, Ichiki Y, Nakamura S, Matsuo H, Eto T (1993). Adrenomedullin: a novel hypotensive peptide isolated from human pheochromocytoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun., 192 (2):553-560.

2.     Ogoshi M, Nobata S, and Takei Y (2008). Potent osmoregulatory actions of homologous adrenomedullins administered peripherally and centrally in eels. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 295: 2075-2083.

3.     Ogoshi M, Inoue K, Naruse K, Takei Y (2006). Evolutionary history of the calcitonin gene-related peptide family in vertebrates revealed by comparative genomic analyses. Peptides, 27 (12):3154-3164.

4.     Cockcroft JR, Noon JP, Gardner-Medwin J, Bennett T (1997). Haemodynamic effects of adrenomedullin in human resistance and capacitance vessels. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 44(1):57-60.

5.     Shimekake Y, Nagata K, Ohta S, Kambayashi Y, Teraoka H, Kitamura K, Eto T, Kangawa K, Matsuo H (1995). Adrenomedullin stimulates two signal transduction pathways, cAMP accumulation and Ca2+ mobilization, in bovine aortic endothelial cells. J Biol Chem, 270: 4412-4417.

6.     Yanagawa B, Nagaya N (2007). Adrenomedullin: molecular mechanisms and its role in cardiac disease. Amino Acids, 32 (1):157-164.

7.     Vesely DL (2003). Natriuretic peptides and acute renal failure. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol, 285 (2):167-177.

8.     Ruzicska E, Toth M, Tulassay Z, Somogyi A (2001). Adrenomedullin and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab Res Rev, 17 (5):321-329.

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If you are unable to find your desired product please contact us for assistance or send an email to info@biosyn.com

 
Product Name Catalog # Unit Price/Unit 
Adrenomedullin (1 - 12), human
YRQSMNNFQGLR
10036-01 1 mg $200 cart inquire
Adrenomedullin (11 - 50), rat
STGCRFGTCTMQKLAHQIYQFTDKDKDGMAPRNKISPQGY-CONH2 (Disulfide bridge: 4-9)
10042-01 1 mg $710 cart inquire
Adrenomedullin (13 - 52), human
SFGCRFGTCTVQKLAHQIYQFTDKDKDNVAPRSKISPQGY-Amide (Disulfide bridge: 4-9)
10034-01 1 mg $710 cart inquire
Adrenomedullin (1 - 50), rat
YRQSMNQGSRSTGCRFGTCTMQKLAHQIYQFTDKDKDGMAPRNKISPQGY-CONH2(Disulfide bridge: 14-19)
10040-01 1 mg $660 cart inquire
Adrenomedullin (1 - 50), rat - 10040-005
YRQSMNQGSRSTGCRFGTCTMQKLAHQIYQFTDKDKDGMAPRNKISPQGY-CONH2(Disulfide bridge: 14-19)
10040-005 0.5 mg $330 cart inquire
Adrenomedullin (1 - 52), human
YRQSMNNFQGLRSFGCRFGTCTVQKLAHQIYQFTDKDKDNVAPRSKISPQGY-Amide(Disulfide bridge: 16-21)
10033-01 1 mg $660 cart inquire
Adrenomedullin (1 - 52), human - 10033-005
YRQSMNNFQGLRSFGCRFGTCTVQKLAHQIYQFTDKDKDNVAPRSKISPQGY-Amide(Disulfide bridge: 16-21)
10033-005 0.5 mg $330 cart inquire
Adrenomedullin (1 - 52), porcine
YRQSMNNFQGLRSFGCRFGTCTVQKLAHQIYQFTDKDKDGVAPRSKISPQGY-CONH2(Disulfide bridge: 16-21)
10041-01 1 mg $710 cart inquire
Adrenomedullin (16 - 31), human, pig
CRFGTCTVQKLAHQIY-CONH2(Disulfide bridge 1-6)
10048-01 1 mg $275 cart inquire
Adrenomedullin (22 - 52), human
TVQKLAHQIYQFTDKDKDNVAPRSKISPQGY-Amide
10035-01 1 mg $235 cart inquire
Adrenomedullin (22 - 52), human-10035-005
TVQKLAHQIYQFTDKDKDNVAPRSKISPQGY-Amide
10035-005 0.5 mg $180 cart inquire
Adrenomedullin (26 - 52), human
LAHQIYQFTDKDKDNVAPRSKISPQGY-CONH2
10046-01 1 mg $400 cart inquire
PAMP (1 - 20); Proadrenomedullin (1 - 20) human
ARLDVASEFRKKWNKWALSR-CONH2
10047-01 1 mg $135 cart inquire
PAMP (1 - 20); Proadrenomedullin (1 - 20) human (10047-05)
ARLDVASEFRKKWNKWALSR-CONH2
10047-05 5 mg $200 cart inquire
Prepro - adrenomedullin (153 - 185), human
SLPEAGPGRTLVSSKPQAHGAPAPPSGSAPHFL
10039-01 1 mg $1,160 cart inquire
Prepro - adrenomedullin (45 - 92), human
ELRMSSSYPTGLADVKAGPAQTLIRPQDMKGASRSPEDSSPDAARIRV
10038-01 1 mg $1,160 cart inquire
Pro - Adrenomedullin (12 - 20) human
KWNKWALSR-CONH2
10045-01 1 mg $225 cart inquire
Pro - Adrenomedullin N20, human
ARLDVAAEFRKKWNKWALSR-Amide
10037-01 1 mg $310 cart inquire
Pro - Adrenomedullin N20, porcine
ARLDVAAEFRKKWNKWALSR-CONH2
10043-005 0.5 mg $265 cart inquire
Pro - Adrenomedullin N20, rat
ARLDTSSQFRKKWNKWALSR-CONH2
10044-005 0.5 mg $270 cart inquire

Biosynthesis Inc.