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Definition

Cell permeable peptides (CPPs) are carriers with small peptide domains that can freely cross cell membranes.  They are mainly used as carriers of proteins and nucleic acids into the cell1.

Discovery

The first CPP was discovered independently by two laboratories in 1988 when it was found that the trans-activating transcriptional activator (Tat) from Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) could be efficiently taken up from the surrounding media by numerous cell types in culture2. 

Structural Characteristics

CPPs typically have an amino acid composition containing either a high relative abundance of positively charged, cationic amino acids such as lysine or arginine, or have sequences that contain an alternating pattern of polar/charged amino acids and non-polar, hydrophobic amino acids3.  Some examples include: TAT peptide-YGRKKRRQRRR, lipid membrane translocating peptide-KKAAAVLLPVLLAAP and Antennapedia leader peptide-KKWKMRRNQFWVKVQRG.

Classification

Numerous CPPs have been identified to date and they belong to a wide variety of protein families. For example, some CPPs are amphipathic protein family members3.

Mode of action

CPPs enter the cell with their carrier by either of three mechanisms:  Direct delivery that involves energy independent entry of the CPPs in to the cell4, endocytosis where the cells take up the CPPs by imbibing them with their cell membranes5 and translocation through the formation of transient structures which is yet to be understood6. 

Functions

CPPs have found numerous applications in medicine as drug delivery agents in the treatment of different diseases including cancer, virus inhibitors, contrast agents for cell labeling a classical example is Green Fluorescent protein GFP, as MRI contrast agents, quantum dots7.  TAT is very effective in delivering drugs in vitro and in vivo and so far a peptide that matches its efficiency has not been found7.

References

1.     Wagstaff KM and David JA (2006). Protein Transduction: Cell Penetrating Peptides and Their Therapeutic Applications, Current Medicinal Chemistry, 13 (12), 1371-1387.

2.     Feng S and Holland EC (1988). HIV-1 Tat trans-activation requires the loop sequence within Tar. Nature 334, 165167.

3.     Stewart KM, Horton KL, Kelley SO (2008). Cell-penetrating peptides as delivery vehicles for biology and medicine, Org Biomol Chem., 6(13), 2242-55.

4.     Luo D, Saltzman WM (2000). Synthetic DNA delivery systems. Nat. Biotechnol, 18, 33-37.

5.     Lundberg M., Wikstrom S and Johansson M (2003). Cell surface adherence and endocytosis of protein transduction domains, Mol. Ther., 8, 143–150.

6.     Deshayes S, Gerbal-Chaloin S, Morris MC, Aldrian-Herrada G, Charnet P, Divita G (2004). On the mechanism of non-endosomial peptide-mediated cellular delivery of nucleic acids, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1667, 141–147.

7.     Temsamani J and Vida P (2004). The use of cell-penetrating peptides for drug delivery, Drug Discovery Today, 9 (23), 1012-1019.

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Product Name Catalog # Unit Price/Unit 
105Y, α1 - antitrypsin (359 - 374)
SIPPEVKFNKPFVYLI
10890-01 1 mg $235 cart inquire
Aminopeptidase N Ligand (CD13) NGR peptide
CNGRCG (Disulfide bridge: 1-5)
10857-05 5 mg $479 cart inquire
Antennapedia Leader Peptide (CT)
KKWKMRRNQFWVKVQRG
10889-01 1 mg $235 cart inquire
Antennapedia Peptide acid
RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK
10866-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
Antennapedia Peptide, amide
RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK-CONH2
10867-01 1 mg $230 cart inquire
Antennapedia Peptide FAM - labeled
5 - FAM - RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK - NH2
14364-01 1 mg $237 cart inquire
Anti - BetaGamma (MPS - Phosducin - like protein C
AAVALLPAVLLALLAVTDQLGEDFFAVDLEAFLQEFGLLPEKE
10852-01 1 mg $430 cart inquire
Anti - BetaGamma (MPS - Phosducin - like protein C - 10852-005
AAVALLPAVLLALLAVTDQLGEDFFAVDLEAFLQEFGLLPEKE
10852-005 0.5 mg $237 cart inquire
(Arg)944
10869-01 1 mg $200 cart inquire
(Arg)9 FAM - labeled
FAM-RRRRRRRRR
10872-01 N/A $237 cart inquire
(Arg)9 TAMRA - labeled
TAMRA-RRRRRRRRR
10873-01 1 mg $259 cart inquire
Biotin - TAT (47 - 57)
Biotin-YGRKKRRQRRR
10874-01 1 mg $245 cart inquire
Buforin
TRSSRAGLQFPVGRVHRLLRK
10886-01 1 mg $171 cart inquire
C105Y, Cell Penetrating Peptide, hα1 - antitrypsin (358-374)
CSIPPEVKFNKPFVYLI
10891-01 1 mg $235 cart inquire
Cys(Npys) Antennapedia Peptide, amide
C(Npys)RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK-CONH2
10868-01 1 mg $245 cart inquire
Cys(Npys) - (Arg)9
C(Npys)RRRRRRRRR-CONH2
10870-01 1 mg $237 cart inquire
Cys(Npys) - (D - Arg)9
C(Npys)rrrrrrrrr-CONH2
10871-01 1 mg $286 cart inquire
Cys(Npys)-HIV-TAT (47 - 57), amide
C(Npys)YGRKKRRQRRR-CONH2
10877-01 1 mg $245 cart inquire
Cys(Npys)-HIV- TAT (47 - 57) amide
C(Npys)YGRKKRRQRRR-CONH2
10879-01 5 mg $650 cart inquire
Cys(Npys) - TAT (47 - 57), FAM - labeled
C(Npys)YGRKKRRQRRRK(FAM)-CONH2
10878-01 1 mg $390 cart inquire
FITC - LC - Antennapedia Peptide
FITC-LC-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK-CONH2
10851-01 1 mg $237 cart inquire
FITC - LC - Antennapedia Peptide-10851-005
FITC-LC-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK-CONH2
10851-005 0.5 mg $149 cart inquire
FITC - LC - MTS
FITC-LC-AAVLLPVLLAAP-CONH2
10855-01 1 mg $510 cart inquire
FITC - LC - TAT (47 - 57)
FITC-LC-YGRKKRRQRRR-CONH2
10854-01 1 mg $350 cart inquire
HIV-TAT (47 - 57), FAM - labeled
FAM-YGRKKRRQRRR
10875-01 1 mg $320 cart inquire
Lipid Membrane Translocating Peptide
KKAAAVLLPVLLAAP
10902-01 1 mg $225 cart inquire
Lipid Membrane Translocating Peptide, D-isomer  NE
kkaaavllpvllaap
10903-01 1 mg $270 cart inquire
Mastoparan
INLKALAALAKKIL-CONH2
10853-01 1 mg $190 cart inquire
Mastoparan (10853-05)
INLKALAALAKKIL-CONH2
10853-05 5 mg $188 cart inquire
MEK1 Derived Peptide Inhibitor 1
MPKKKPTPIQLNP
10858-01 1 mg $215 cart inquire
Membrane - Permeable Sequence, MPS
AAVALLPAVLLALLAK
10883-01 1 mg $230 cart inquire
MPG, HIV related
GALFLGFLGAAGSTMGAWSQPKSKRKV
10865-01 1 mg $450 cart inquire
MPS - Gαi3
AAVALLPAVLLALLAKNNLKECGLY
10882-01 1 mg $315 cart inquire
MPS - Gαi2
AAVALLPAVLLALLAKNNLKDCGLF
10881-01 1 mg $315 cart inquire
Myristoyl - MEK1 Derived Peptide Inhibitor 1
Myr-MPKKKPTPIQLNP
10859-01 1 mg $255 cart inquire
NGR Peptide 1
CNGRCGGklaklakklaklak-CONH2 (Disulfide bridge: 1-5)
10861-01 1 mg $232 cart inquire
NGR Peptide 2
CNGRCGGLVTT (Disulfide bridge: 1-5)
10862-01 1 mg $245 cart inquire
NGR Peptide 3
CNGRC-CONH2 (Disulfide bridge: 1-5)
10863-01 1 mg $250 cart inquire
NGR Peptide 4
CNGRCGGkklklllkll (Disulfide bridge: 1-5)
10864-01 1 mg $335 cart inquire
Nuclear Localiation Signal Peptide
PKKKRKV
10888-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
Pep - 1: Chariot (Non - Covalent Delivery of Peptide
KETWWETWWTEWSQPKKKRKV
10884-01 1 mg $171 cart inquire
Rabies Virus Matrix Protein Fragment (RV-MAT)
MNLLRKIVKNRRDEDTQKSSPASAPLDDG
10904-01 1 mg $335 cart inquire
SynB1
RGGRLSYSRRRFSTSTGRA
10885-01 1 mg $245 cart inquire
TAT (47 - 57) GGG - Cys(Npys)
YGRKKRRQRRRGGG-C(Npys)-CONH2
10880-01 5 mg $237 cart inquire
TAT (47-57)-Lys(TAMRA)
YGRKKRRQRRRK(TAMRA)
10893-01 1 mg $350 cart inquire
Tat (48-57)
GRKKRRQRRR
10895-01 1 mg $200 cart inquire
Tat-NR2Bct
YGRKKRRQRRRKLSSIESDV
10892-01 1 mg $232 cart inquire
TAT-NSF222 Fusion Peptide
YGRKKRRQRRR-GGG-LDKEFNSIFRRAFASRVFPPE
10901-01 1 mg $308 cart inquire
TAT-NSF222scr Fusion Polypeptide scrambled
YGRKKRRQRRR-GGG-ENSFRFLADIFPAKAFPVRFE
10898-01 1 mg $303 cart inquire
TAT-NSF700 Fusion Peptide
YGRKKRRQRRR-GGG-LLDYVPIGPRFSNLVLQALLVL
10900-01 1 mg $320 cart inquire
TAT-NSF700scr
YGRKKRRQRRRGGGIPPVYFSRLDLNLVVLLLAQL
10897-01 1 mg $303 cart inquire
TAT-NSF81scr Fusion Polypeptide, scrambeled
YGRKKRRQRRR-GGG-QDGCKYFATDETIMKLSIAI
10899-01 1 mg $400 cart inquire
Transdermal Peptide
ACSSSPSKHCG
10896-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
Transportan
GWTLNSAGYLLGKINLKALAALAKKIL
10887-01 1 mg $232 cart inquire

Biosynthesis Inc.