Live Chat Support Software
800.227.0627

Definition
Neuropeptides are 3-40 amino acids in length functions as neurotransmitters. They are widespread in the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

Discovery
Neuropeptides were discovered in 1975 by Dr John Hughes and Dr. Kosterlitz. They were the endorphins, the internally-produced morphine-like substances responsible for an array of drug-like effects in the body. A neuropeptide precursor mRNA sequence can be identified from sequence information 1, and the resulting translated protein sequence includes a signal peptide sequence and one or multiple neuropeptides. An extensive and complicated series of enzymatic processing steps, including cleavage by prohormone or proprotein convertases and other post-translational modifications, occur on the translated protein sequence before the active neuropeptides are created  2,3.

Structural Characteristics
Conformational properties of several like neuropeptides from mollusks were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal variable regions of the peptides had dramatic effects on the populations of reverse turns in solution. The populations of turns, as measured by two independent NMR parameters, were found to be highly correlated (r2 = 0.93 and 0.82) with IC50 values using receptor membrane preparations from Helix aspersa. These results suggest that the conformational ensemble reduces the effective concentration of a particular peptide with respect to a particular receptor 4,5.

The neuropeptide Y is identical to the human peptide and is highly homologous to avian pancreatic polypeptide. The homology between neuropeptide Y and avian pancreatic polypeptide preserves all of the residues essential for the maintenance of the tertiary structure. Results suggest that neuropeptide preserves a compact tertiary structure characterized by extensive hydrophobic interactions between an N-terminal polyproline-II-like helix and a C-terminal a-helix  6.

Some peptides have been found via one of the many orphan receptors, that is receptors for which the endogenous ligand is unknown eg, "opioid receptor-like 1" (ORL1). Subsequently, the structure of the endogenous agonist of this ORL1 receptor, a 17-amino acid peptide termed orphanin FQ or nociceptin, have been elucidated 7.

Mode of Action
Neuropeptides are peptides released by neurons as intercellular messengers. Some neuropeptides function as neurotransmitters, and others function as hormones. Neuropeptides, can work both for and against us. Anti-inflammatory neuropeptides work for us to reduce inflammation fo the skin. Neuropeptides are created by nature to interact with target cell membrane receptor(s) in well-defined sites of action and for a very limited time. Therefore, most of these endogenous compounds are characterized by low biological barrier permeability and very high susceptibility to enzymatic degradation.  Intraventricular or systemic injection of neuropeptide Y (NPY) can produce a decrease in plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in castrated rats of both sexes. NPY is of physiological importance in the regulation of LH secretion in the rat and that the action of NPY could be exerted by at least two different ways: (1) a stimulatory effect of NPY on serotoninergic systems which in turn inhibit LHRH release and (2) a direct stimulatory effect of the peptide on LHRH neuronal system 6.

Functions

Biological functions,
Neuropeptides control our mood, energy levels, pain and pleasure reception, body weight, and ability to solve problems; they also form memories, affective behavior, appetite, and inflammation, repair scars and wrinkles and regulate our immune system. These active little messengers in the brain actually turn on cellular function in the skin 7. Therefore, today, the design of drugs that interact with neuropeptide systems is one of the most explored avenues in postgenomic medicinal chemistry.

Substance P has been identified as a major neuropeptide responsible for transmission of nociceptive signals. Endogenous opioids are native neuropeptides that are responsible for modulation (generally, suppression) of nociceptive signals.

Immune system, when they are secreted, they activate natural killer cells (NK cells) and thereby increase our immune system.

Lesion of blood vessel, as the Endorphins are secreted more and more, the shrunken blood vessels return to a normal state allowing blood to flow in a normal manner. Most adult disease start form clogged blood vessels. Endorphins help to improve the circulation of blood.

Endorphins have anti-aging effect by removing superoxide, The oxygen coming into the body from breathing can change into a Superoxide. This is one of the biggest enemies for human causing diseases and aging.

Anti-stress hormones, the ability to cope with the stress is in proportion to the endorphins levels we have in our body.

Pain-relieving effect, our nervous system secretes neuro-transmitters when it receives the signal of pain. Once the endorphins are released at that moment of pain, endorphins combine with endorphin receptors on the neuron, which hinders the first neuro-transmitters from being secreted.

Memory, neuropeptides can improve memory as they can keep the brain cells young and healthy.

References

1.     Hummon AB, Richmond TA, Verleyen P, Baggerman G, Huybrechts J, Ewing MA, Vierstraete E, Rodriguez-Zas SL, Liliane SL, Robinson GE (2006). From the genome to the proteome: uncovering peptides in the Apis brain. Science, 27(314):647-649.

2.     Rockwell NC, Krysan DJ, Komiyama T, Fuller RS (2002). Precursor processing by Kex2/Furin Proteases. Chem. Rev., 102:4525–4548.

3.     Von ER, Beck-Sickinger AG (2004). Biosynthesis of peptide hormones derived from precursor sequences. Curr. Med. Chem.,11:2651–2665.

4.     Edison AS, Espinoza E, Zachariah C (1999). Conformational Ensembles: The Role of Neuropeptide Structures in Receptor Binding. The Journal of Neuroscience., 19(15):6318-6326.

5.     Payza K, Greenberg MJ, Price DA (1989). Further characterization of Helix FMRFamide receptors: kinetics, tissue distribution, and interactions with the endogenous heptapeptides. Peptides, 10:657-661.

6.     Allen J, Novotný J, Martin J, Heinrich G (1987). Molecular structure of mammalian neuropeptide Y: Analysis by molecular cloning and computer-aided comparison with crystal structure of avian homologue. PNAS., 84:2532-2536.

7.     Guya J, Lia S,  Pelletier G (1988). Studies on the physiological role and mechanism of action of neuropeptide Y in the regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion in the rat. Regulatory Peptides., 23(2):209-216.

ALL
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

If you are unable to find your desired product please contact us for assistance or send an email to info@biosyn.com

 
Product Name Catalog # Unit Price/Unit 
26Rfa, Hypothalamic Peptide, frog
VGTALGSLAEELNGYNRKKGGFSFRF-CONH2
12706-01 1 mg $325 cart inquire
26Rfa, Hypothalamic Peptide human
TSGPLGNLAEELNGYSRKKGGFSFRF-CONH2
12708-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
26Rfa Hypothalamic Peptide rat
ASGPLGTLAEELSSYSRRKGGFSFRF-CONH2
12707-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
Activity - Dependent Neurotrophic Factor, ADNF - 1
VLGGGSALLRSIPA
12719-01 1 mg $225 cart inquire
Adrenal Medulla Chromaffin Vesicles Derived Peptid
ARPVKEP
12727-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
α-Neo - Endorphin
YGGFLRKYPK
12749-01 1 mg $215 cart inquire
Alytesin
pE-GRLGTQWAVGHLM-CONH2
12689-01 1 mg $325 cart inquire
Brain Neuropeptide I
AGEGLSSPFWSLAAPQRF-CONH2
12704-01 1 mg $240 cart inquire
Brain Neuropeptide II
FLFQPPRF-CONH2
12705-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
Buccalin
GMDSLAFSGGL-CONH2
12679-01 1 mg $205 cart inquire
CART Protein Precursor (82 - 86)
IPIYE
12750-01 1 mg $200 cart inquire
Catestatin, Chromogranin A (352 - 372), human
SSMKLSFRARAYGFRGPGPQ
12741-01 1 mg $270 cart inquire
Cerebellin
SGSAKVAFSAIRSTNH
12678-01 1 mg $230 cart inquire
Cerebral peptide 2
FDFGFAGLDTYDAIHRALEQPARGTSNSGSGYNMLMKMQRH-CONH2
12676-01 1 mg $500 cart inquire
CKK - Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (IRS - 1) (979
CKKSRGDYMTMQIG
12742-01 1 mg $230 cart inquire
Claudin - Like Protein 24, CLP24, (155 - 169), rat
TFYRIGPYTNLSWSC
12730-01 1 mg $235 cart inquire
Claudin - Like Protein 24, CLP24 (212 - 226), rat
RFRRGLDNDYVESPC
12728-01 1 mg $230 cart inquire
CLP24 (187 - 201), Claudin - like Protein 24 (187
IWNILHKREDCMAPR
12729-01 1 mg $235 cart inquire
Complement anaphylatoxin C5a (37 - 53), human
RAARISLGPRCIKAFTE
12718-01 1 mg $235 cart inquire
Delta - Sleep - Inducing Peptide (DSIP)
WAGGDASGE
12754-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
Ecdysis - Triggering Hormone 1 (ETH1), Drosophila
DDSSPGFFLKITKNVPRL-CONH2
12757-01 1 mg $240 cart inquire
Eledoisin
Pyr-PSKDAFIGLM-CONH2
12684-01 1 mg $285 cart inquire
Erythropoietin, Human (hEPO) Fragment
MEVGQQAVEVWQGLALLSEAVLR
12745-01 1 mg $305 cart inquire
FITC - LC - Synaptophysin Fragment
FITC-LC-GYGPQDSYGPQGGYQPDYGQ
12670-01 1 mg $490 cart inquire
GAD65 (206 - 220)
TYEIAPVFVLLEYVT
12688-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
Galanin Like Peptide (GALP), human
APAHRGRGGWTLNSAGYLLGPVLHLPQMGDQDGKRETALEILDLWKAIDGLPYSHPPQPS
12714-005 0.5 mg $380 cart inquire
Galanin Like Peptide (GALP), human
APAHRGRGGWTLNSAGYLLGPVLHLPQMGDQDGKRETALEILDLWKAIDGLPYSHPPQPS
12715-01 1 mg $810 cart inquire
Glial - Glutamate transporter I, GLTI
AANGKSADCSVEEEPWKREK
12671-01 1 mg $380 cart inquire
Glutamate Receptor Endocytosis Inhibitor, control
AKEGANVAG
12744-01 1 mg $225 cart inquire
Glutamate Receptor Endocytosis Inhibitor GluR23Y
YKEGYNVYG
14787-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
Gonadoliberin I (24 - 33)
QHWSYGLRPG
12747-01 1 mg $215 cart inquire
Head Activator
Pyr-PPGGSKVILF
12673-01 1 mg $310 cart inquire
Human Myocilin/TIGR Fragment (188 - 204)
TRDTARAVPPGSREVST
12669-01 1 mg $235 cart inquire
Hym - 33H, Hydra nerve cell differentiation inhibi
AALPW
12723-01 1 mg $200 cart inquire
Hym - 54, Hydra Signal Molecule
GPMTGLW-CONH2
12724-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
Hypertrehalosaemic Neuropeptide, Heliothis zea
Pyr-LTFSSGWGN-CONH2
12672-01 1 mg $320 cart inquire
Hypocretin - 2 (69 - 97), human
RPGPPGLQGRLQRLLQANGNHAAGILTMG
12720-01 1 mg $265 cart inquire
IRS - 1 - Derived Peptide, TAMRA - labeled
5-TAMRA-KKSRGDYMTMQIG-CONH2
12713-01 1 mg $360 cart inquire
L1ARSLCD
FGEARSLESDNEE
12710-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
L1CD (1163–1176)
SEARPMKDETFGEY
12712-01 1 mg $225 cart inquire
L1ΔRSLECD
FGEYSDNEE
12711-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
LCMV GP61
GLNGPDIYKGVYQFKSVEFD
14788-01 1 mg $116 cart inquire
LCMV NP396 H - 2Db peptide
FQPQNGQFI
14789-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
Leucokinin 3
DQGFNSWG-CONH2
12756-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
Levitide
Pyr-GMIGTLTSKRIKQ-CONH2
12681-01 1 mg $285 cart inquire
MBP (85 - 106) guinea pig MBP (86 - 107) human
VVHFFKNIVTPRTPPPSQGKGR
14778-01 1 mg $176 cart inquire
MBP (85-99) Peptide Antagonist
EKPKVEAYKAAAAPA
14257-01 1 mg $240 cart inquire
MOG (101 - 120), human, mouse
RDHSYQEEAAMELKVEDPFY
12737-01 1 mg $250 cart inquire
MOG (35 - 51)
MEVGWYRSPFSRVVHLY
12692-01 1 mg $235 cart inquire
MOG(35 - 52)
MEVGWYRSPFSRVVHLYR
12690-01 1 mg $240 cart inquire
MOG (35 - 53)
MEVGWYRSPFSRVVHLYRN
12691-01 1 mg $245 cart inquire
MOG (35 - 55) mouse rat
MEVGWYRSPFSRVVHLYRNGK
12668-01 1 mg $250 cart inquire
MOG (35 - 55) mouse rat (12668-05)
MEVGWYRSPFSRVVHLYRNGK
12668-05 5 mg $435 cart inquire
MOG (35 - 55) mouse rat (12668-10)
MEVGWYRSPFSRVVHLYRNGK
12668-10 10 mg $795 cart inquire
MOG (38–53)
GWYRSPFSRVVHLYRN
12700-01 1 mg $230 cart inquire
MOG (38 - 55)
GWYRSPFSRVVHLYRNGK
12693-01 1 mg $240 cart inquire
MOG (40–54)
YRSPFSRVVHLYRNG
12702-01 1 mg $225 cart inquire
MOG (40–55)
YRSPFSRVVHLYRNGK
12694-01 1 mg $230 cart inquire
MOG (41–54)
RSPFSRVVHLYRNG
12695-01 1 mg $225 cart inquire
MOG (42 - 54)
SPFSRVVHLYRNG
12696-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
MOG (43–54)
PFSRVVHLYRNG
12697-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
MOG (44 - 54) mouse human rat
FSRVVHLYRNG
14790-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
MOG (45 - 54)
SRVVHLYRNG
12698-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
MOG (46 - 54)
RVVHLYRNG
12699-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
MOG (8 - 21)
PGYPIRALVGDEAE
12736-01 1 mg $225 cart inquire
Myomodulin
PMSMLRL-CONH2
12755-01 1 mg $205 cart inquire
Neuromedin S, human
ILQRGSGTAAVDFTKKDHTATWGRPFFLFRPRN-CONH2
12687-01 1 mg $370 cart inquire
Neuropeptide NPW - 23 (Human)
WYKHVASPRYHTVGRAAGLLMGL
12709-01 1 mg $300 cart inquire
Neuropeptide NPW - 30 (Human)
WYKHVASPRYHTVGRAAGLLMGLRRSPYLW
12703-01 1 mg $350 cart inquire
Neuropeptide S NPS human
SFRNGVGTGMKKTSFQRAKS
12680-01 1 mg $116 cart inquire
Neuropeptide S NPS mouse
SFRNGVGSGAKKTSFRRAKQ
12683-01 1 mg $116 cart inquire
Neuropeptide S, NPS, rat
SFRNGVGSGVKKTSFRRAKQ
12686-01 1 mg $250 cart inquire
Neuropeptide W - 23, NPW23, porcine
WYKHTASPRYHTVGRAAGLLMGL
12716-01 1 mg $305 cart inquire
Neuropeptide W - 23 (NPW23), rat
WYKHVASPRYHTVGRASGLLMGL
12717-01 1 mg $305 cart inquire
Neuropeptide W - 30, NPW30, rat
WYKHVASPRYHTVGRASGLLMGLRRSPYLW
12721-005 0.5 mg $270 cart inquire
Neuropeptide W - 30, NPW30, rat
WYKHVASPRYHTVGRASGLLMGLRRSPYLW
12722-01 1 mg $410 cart inquire
Neurotensin
pE - LYENKPRRPYIL
14791-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
Nocistatin
EQKQLQ
12682-01 1 mg $215 cart inquire
NPSF (1 - 37), Neuropeptide SF (1 - 37)
SLNFEELKDWGPKNVIKMSTPAVNKMPHSFANLPLRF-CONH2
12726-01 1 mg $450 cart inquire
NPVF
VPNLPQRF-CONH2
12725-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
P0 (180 - 199)
SSKRGRQTPVLYAMLDHSRS
14792-01 1 mg $156 cart inquire
P2 (53 - 78)
TESPFKNTEISFKLGQEFEETTADNR
14793-01 1 mg $237 cart inquire
Pevpyrokinin - 1 (PPK - 1, Pev - PK 1)
DFAFSPRL-CONH2
12752-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
Pevpyrokinin - 2 (PPK - 2, Pev - PK 2)
ADFAFSPRL-CONH2
12753-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase - Activating Polypepti
GMGENLAAAAVDDRAPLT
12748-01 1 mg $240 cart inquire
pMOG (44 - 54)
FSRVVHLYRNG
12701-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
Proctolin
RYLPT
12685-01 1 mg $185 cart inquire
Rhodopsin (338 - 348), human, mice, rat, dog, bovi
KTETSQVAPA
12738-01 1 mg $215 cart inquire
Secretogranin I Precursor (585 - 594)
SFAKAPHLDL
12746-01 1 mg $215 cart inquire
Secretoneurin
TNEIVEEQYTPQSLATLESVFQELGKLTGPSNQ
14794-01 1 mg $281 cart inquire
SNAP - 25 (181 - 206)
IMEKADSNKTRIDEANQRATKMLGSG
12734-01 1 mg $320 cart inquire
SNAP - 25 (49 - 58)
MLDEQGEQLER
12733-01 1 mg $205 cart inquire
[Tyr11] Head Activator
Pyr-PPGGSKVILY
12674-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
Tyr - W - MIF - 1
YPWG-CONH2
12666-01 1 mg $180 cart inquire
Vanilloid Receptor Subtype 1 (VR1)
CEDAEVFKDSMVPGEK
12667-01 1 mg $255 cart inquire
Vesicle - Associated Membrane Protein, VAMP (60 -
LSELDDRADALQAGASQFETSAAKLKRKYWWKNLK
12731-01 1 mg $405 cart inquire
Vesicle - Associated Membrane Protein, VAMP, (62 -
ELDDRADALQ
12735-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
Vesicle - Associated Membrane Protein, VAMP (77 -
SQFETSAAKLKRKYWWKNLK
12732-01 1 mg $250 cart inquire

Biosynthesis Inc.