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Definition
Signal transduction is a process in which a peptide transfers specific information from the outside of the target cell to exert a cellular response.

Discovery
Rensing L in 1972 described, Periodic geophysical and biological signals as exogenous inducers in animal organisms 1. Tonndorf J in 1975 explained signal transmission in the cochlear hair cell-nerve junction 2. Landmark discoveries in the field of signal transduction were made by Rodbell in 1980 where he described the role of hormone receptors and GTP-regulatory proteins in membrane transduction 3. Further discoveries provided new and provocative insight toward identifying potentially physiologically relevant steroid receptors capable of mediating nongenomic signaling, describing a novel family of high-affinity membrane steroid receptors with structure and signaling similar to GPCRs 4.

Structural Characteristics
Most signal transduction involves the binding of extracellular signaling molecules to cell-surface receptors and subsequently trigger events inside the cell. Peptide molecules involved in signal transduction functions as, hormones, growth factors, cytokines, neurotrophins etc 5,6,7. The glycoprotein signal transduction molecules are the most chemically complex family of the peptide hormones. Each of the glycoprotein hormones is an (a:ß) heterodimer, with the a-subunit being identical in all members of the family. The biological activity of the hormone is determined by the ß-subunit, which is not active in the absence of the a-subunit. The molecular weight of the gonadotropins (follicle stimulating hormone, FSH; luteinizing hormone, LH, and human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG) is about 25,000 Daltons, whereas that of the thyroid tropic hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is about 30,000. All members of the glycoprotein family transduce their intracellular effects via their respective receptors and the associated G-protein, adenylate cyclase, second-messenger systems. Adrenocorticotropic hormone is a 39 amino acid peptide derived by post-translational modification from a 241 amino acid precursor known as pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). Glucagon is a 29-amino acid hormone synthesized by the a-cells of the islets of Langerhans as a very much larger proglucagon molecule. Novel Neurotrophin-1 (NNT-1) is found predominantly in lymph nodes and spleen, which contains 225 amino acids with a molecular mass of 22 kDa in its mature form.

Mode of Action
Upon binding of signaling peptides to the cell surface receptor, a signal is transduced to the interior of the cell, where second messengers and phosphorylated proteins generate appropriate metabolic responses. The main second messengers are cAMP, Ca2+, inositol triphosphate (IP3), and diacylglycerol (DAG). Proteins are phosphorylated on serine and threonine by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and DAG-activated protein kinase C (PKC). Additionally a series of membrane-associated and intracellular tyrosine kinases phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues on target enzymes and other regulatory proteins. A second class of peptide induces the transduction of 2 second messengers, DAG and IP3. Hormone binding is followed by interaction with a stimulatory G-protein which is followed in turn by G-protein activation of membrane-localized phospholipase C-?, (PLC-?). PLC-? hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to produce 2 messengers: IP3, which is soluble in the cytosol, and DAG, which remains in the membrane phase. Cytosolic IP3 binds to sites on the endoplasmic reticulum, opening Ca2+ channels and allowing stored Ca2+ to flood the cytosol. There it activates numerous enzymes, many by activating their calmodulin or calmodulin-like subunits. DAG has 2 roles: it binds and activates protein kinase C (PKC), and it opens Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane, reinforcing the effect of IP3. Like PKA, PKC phosphorylates serine and threonine residues of many proteins, thus modulating their catalytic activity 8,9.

Functions
The normal function of a cell depends upon an intact signal regulation/termination system. If this system malfunctions, the host may experience pathophysiological consequences such as abnormal secretion, motility, growth, or even the development of cancer 3,8,9.

Glucose metabolism, the activated glycogen phosphorylase degrades carbohydrate stored as glycogen in the fat body cells. The glycolytic products of glycogen degradation serve as precursors for the synthesis of trehalose, the major insect blood sugar 10.

Lipogenesis, insulin stimulates lipogenesis, diminishes lipolysis, and increases amino acid transport into cells. Insulin also modulates transcription, altering the cell content of numerous mRNAs. It stimulates growth, DNA synthesis, and cell replication, effects that it holds in common with the IGFs and relaxin.

Gluconeogenesis, Glucagon also binds to receptors in adipose tissue resulting in increased activation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). In the liver the oxidation of fatty acids is necessary to provide the energy needed for gluconeogenesis which is activated in liver in response to glucagon.

In gut, there are more than 30 peptides currently identified as being expressed within the digestive tract, making the gut the largest endocrine organ in the body.

Cytokines, are secreted by specific cells of the immune system which carry signals locally between cells, and thus have an effect on other cells. They are a category of signaling molecules that are used extensively in cellular communication.

References

1.     Rensing L (1972). Periodic geophysical and biological signals as Zeitgeber and exogenous inducers in animal organisms. Int. J. Biometeorol., 16:113-125.

2.     Tonndorf J (1975). Davis-1961 revisited. Signal transmission in the cochlear hair cell-nerve junction. Arch. Otolaryngol., 101(9):528–535.

3.     Rodbell M (1980). The role of hormone receptors and GTP-regulatory proteins in membrane transduction. Nature, 284 (5751)17–22.

4.     Hammes SR (2003). The further redefining of steroid-mediated signaling. PNAS., 100 (5):21680–2170.

5.     Sugden D, Davidson K, Hough KA, Teh MT (2004). Melatonin, melatonin receptors and melanophores: a moving story. Pigment Cell Res., 17 (5): 454–460.

6.     Carpenter G, Cohen S. (1990). Epidermal growth factor. J. Biol. Chem., 265(14): 7709–7712.

7.     Schroder K, Hertzog PJ, Ravasi T, Hume DA (2004). Interferon-? an overview of signals, mechanisms and functions. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 75: 163-189.

8.     Lalli E, Sassone-Corsi P (1994). Signal transduction and gene regulation: the nuclear response to cAMP. J Biol Chem., 269 (26):17359–17362.

9.     Rosen O (1987). After insulin binds. Science, 237(4821):1452–1458.

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Product Name Catalog # Unit Price/Unit 
Ac-PGP
Ac-PGP
13427-01 1 mg $200 cart inquire
Alpha Mating Factor, α-Mating Factor
WHWLQLKPGQPMY
13396-01 1 mg $245 cart inquire
Alpha Mating Factor α-Mating Factor
WHWLQLKPGQPMY
13396-05 5 mg $245 cart inquire
Beta - Amyloid (1 - 12) Human
DAEFRHDSGYEV
14852-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
Beta - Amyloid (1 - 22) Human
DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAE
14853-01 1 mg $176 cart inquire
Caveolin-3 (Cav-3), (55-74)
DGVWRVSYTTFTVSKYWCYR
13429-01 1 mg $250 cart inquire
CbnA Induction Factor
SINSQIGKATSSISKCVFSFFKKC (Disulfide bridge: 16-24)
13383-01 1 mg $310 cart inquire
CC Chemokine Receptor 3 Fragment I, amide
MTTSLDTVETFGTTSYYDDVGLLCEKADTR-CONH2
13384-01 1 mg $345 cart inquire
CC Chemokine Receptor 3 Fragment II
MTTSLDTVETFGTTSYYDDVGLLC
13385-01 1 mg $310 cart inquire
CC Chemokine Receptor 3 Fragment II, amide
MTTSLDTVETFGTTSYYDDVGLLC-CONH2
13386-01 1 mg $310 cart inquire
[Cys1] Inter-α-Trypsin Inhibitor Heavy Chain 4
CMNFRPGVLSSRQLGLPGPPDVPDHAAYHPF
13439-01 1 mg $360 cart inquire
[Cys1] Inter-α-Trypsin Inhibitor Heavy Chain 4
CLGLPGPPDVPDH.
13440-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
DAP10 Signaling Fragment
PAQEDGKVYINMPGRG
13393-01 1 mg $230 cart inquire
Doc - 6 (130 - 145)
GVQREQNERFNVYLMP
13405-01 1 mg $250 cart inquire
Dok-5 (130-145)
GVEREQSERFNVYLMP
13407-01 1 mg $240 cart inquire
Dyrktide
RRRFRPASPLRGPPK
14855-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
Dyrktide, TAMRA labeled
5-TAMRA-RRRFRPASPLRGPPK
13453-01 1 mg $345 cart inquire
EBIP37, BIOTIN-LC
BIOTIN-LC-TGGGVSLLLHLLNTEQGES
13433-01 1 mg $310 cart inquire
ELK1 Protein Fragment
RRPRSPAKLSFQFPS
13387-01 1 mg $225 cart inquire
EMP17 FITC - LC labeled
FITC-LC-TYSCHFGPLTWVCKPQGG
13388-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
eNOS (493-512), bovine
TRKKTFKEVANAVKISASLM
13438-01 1 mg $250 cart inquire
Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor,4E b
PGGTRIIYDRKFLMECRNSP
13446-01 1 mg $270 cart inquire
GSK3 Peptide Substrate
GRPRTTSFAE
13389-01 1 mg $200 cart inquire
Guanylin, human
PGTCEICAYAACTGC (Disulfide bridge: 4-12 and 7-15)
13381-01 1 mg $500 cart inquire
Histone 4 (1-20) PRMT7 Substrate M1
SGRGKGGKGLGKGGAKRHRK-CONH2
13448-01 1 mg $116 cart inquire
Histone 4-12, p300/CBP Substrate
RGKGGKGLGKGA
13450-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
Histone 4-21, p300/CBP Substrate
SGRGKGGKGLGKGGAKRHRKV
13449-01 1 mg $295 cart inquire
Hsp Heat shock protein (3–13)
KTIAYDEEARR
13410-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
Human Platelet Membrane Glycoprotein Binding Site
LVAGRRPSALS
13431-01 1 mg $215 cart inquire
iNOS (507-531), human
RPKRREIPLKVLVKAVLFACMLMRK
13443-01 1 mg $315 cart inquire
Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4, C-ter
CLGLPGPPDVPDH.
13441-01 1 mg $240 cart inquire
IRBP Interphotoreceptor Retinoid Binding Protein
SGIPYIISYLHPGNTILHVD
13390-01 1 mg $116 cart inquire
JAG-1 (188-204) Jagged-1 (188-204) Notch Ligand
CDDYYYGFGCNKFCRPR
13401-01 1 mg $149 cart inquire
M13 Skeletal Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase Pept
KRRWKKNFIAVSAANRFKKISSSGAL
13391-01 1 mg $198 cart inquire
M13 Skeletal Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase Pept
KRRWKKNFIAVSAANRFKKISSSGAL
13391-05 5 mg $820 cart inquire
Mitogen- and Stress-Activated Kinase1 (MSK1), D-do
FNKYKREGFCLQNVDKAPLAKRRKMKKTSTSTE
13436-01 1 mg $380 cart inquire
Mitogen- and Stress-Activated Kinase2 (MSK2), D-do
FNRGKREGFFLKSVENAPLAKRRKQKLRSATAS
13437-01 1 mg $380 cart inquire
MKK4 Docking Site peptide
QGKRKALKLNF
13426-01 1 mg $215 cart inquire
NES Topoisomerase II alpha (1017 - 1028)
DILRDFFELRLK
13408-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
nNOS (725-747), rat
KRRAIGFKKLAEAVKFSAKLMGQ
13442-01 1 mg $300 cart inquire
NR-Box 2 Peptide
KHKILHRLLQDSS
13451-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
Pannexin - 1 Fragment (4512)
VQQKSSLQSESGN
13411-01 1 mg $230 cart inquire
Pannexin - 1 Fragment (4515)
EKNSRQRLLNPS
13413-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
Pannexin-1 (Panx1) Mimetic Blocking Peptide
WRQAAFVDSY
13415-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
PAR - 1 - selective peptide
TFLLRN
13402-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
PAR - 1 - selective peptide
TFLLRN
13402-05 5 mg $188 cart inquire
PEST Domain of p105
DSGVETS
13392-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
PGC-1α-(205–216)
RPCSELLKYLTT
13398-01 1 mg $225 cart inquire
PGC-1α (205–216), Proliferator-activated Receptor
Ac-RPCSELLKYLTT-CONH2
13399-01 1 mg $235 cart inquire
PKC zeta 410
GDTTSTFCGTPN
13430-01 1 mg $230 cart inquire
Protease - Activated Receptor - 1 PAR - 1 Agonist
TFLLRN
14856-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
Protease - Activated Receptor - 1 PAR - 1 Agonist
TFLLRN
14856-05 5 mg $188 cart inquire
Protein A Specific Ligand
GHHKHHGGG
13447-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
(pS8, pS13) Eucariotic Translation Initiation Fact
5-FAM-RRAAEELD-pS-RAG-pS-PQL-CONH2
13434-01 1 mg $400 cart inquire
[pSer133, Leu123]-CREBtide Peptide Substrate, LC,
Biotin-LC-LRREILSRRP-pS-YRK-CONH2
13452-01 1 mg $330 cart inquire
(pY185)MAP (177 - 189) kinase
DHTGFLTE-pY-VATR
13404-01 1 mg $325 cart inquire
Receptor Interacting Protein 140, RIP 140
SFSKNGLLSRLLRQNQDSY
13432-01 1 mg $245 cart inquire
RIAD, FAM labeled
LEQYANQLADQIIKEATE-K(FAM)-CONH2
13428-01 1 mg $360 cart inquire
RIP (131-142), Receptor Interacting Protein (131-142)
TLLASLLQSESS
13420-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
RIP (498-509), Receptor Interacting Protein (498-509)
TLLQLLLGHKNE
13422-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
RIP (817-828), Receptor Interacting Protein (817-828)
GLLSRLLRQNQD
13421-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
Scrambled Jag1
SC - Jag1
14857-01 1 mg $166 cart inquire
SRC 1 (1433-1440), Steroid Receptor Co-activator (1433-1440)
SLLQQLLT
13423-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
SRC 1 (1433-1441), Steroid Receptor Co-activator 1 (1433-1441)
SLLQQLLTE
13424-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
SRC-1 (682–697)
SLTARHKILHRLLQEG
13400-01 1 mg $245 cart inquire
Steroid Receptor Coactivator-1 (SRC-1) (676-700)
Biotin-CPSSHSSLTERHKILHRLLQEGSPS
13435-01 1 mg $237 cart inquire
Steroid Receptor Coactivator-1 (SRC-1), (676-700)-Lys(Biotin)
CPSSHSSLTERHKILHRLLQEGSPS-K(Biotin)-CONH2
13445-01 1 mg $400 cart inquire
Steroid Receptor Coactivator - 1 SRC - 1 (686 - 700)
RHKILHRLLQEGSPS
14858-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
Steroid Receptor Coactivator-1, SRC-1 (690-695)
LHRLLQ
13444-01 1 mg $205 cart inquire
Steroid Receptor Co - Factor Peptide
LTERHKILHRLLQE
13394-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
TET 830 modified/T - helper epitope from tetanus toxoid
AQYIKANSKFIGITEL
13397-01 1 mg $149 cart inquire
TIF2 (636-649), Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 2
KGQTKLLQLLTTKS
13418-01 1 mg $225 cart inquire
TIF2 (682-700) box 2, Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 2
TSLKEKHKILHRLLQDSS
13425-01 1 mg $240 cart inquire
TIF2 (740-753) Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 2
KENALLRYLLDKDD
13417-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 2, Tif-2 (685-697)
EKHKILHRLLQDS
13419-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
Transduction Peptide 1 (α II)
SSLTSRDFGSWYASR
13395-01 1 mg $225 cart inquire
TRPV4, rat (CT)
CDGHQQGYAPKWRAEDAPL
13416-01 1 mg $310 cart inquire
WKYMVm - NH2
WKYMVm-CONH2
13382-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
WRW4 Formyl Peptide Receptor - Like 1 (FPRL1) Antagonist
WRWWWW
14859-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire

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