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Definition

Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), which is synthesized principally in the stomach and is released in response to acute and chronic changes in nutritional state 1.

 

Related peptides

The ghrelin gene encodes a precursor protein, preproghrelin. Alternative mRNA splicing and/or proteolytic processing derives ghrelin and other potentially active peptides. The peptide obestatin is derived from the C-terminal region of preproghrelin and has direct effects on cell proliferation2. The ligand des-Gln14-ghrelin, a 27-amino acid peptide with an n-octanoyl modification at Ser3, is identical to ghrelin except for the deletion of one glutamine, and is produced through alternative splicing of the rat ghrelin gene. Des-Gln14-ghrelin has the same potency as ghrelin. On the other hand, the unmodified, des-n-octanoyl form of ghrelin (desacyl ghrelin) has no effect on the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ and GH secretion1. Other peptide hormones (i.e., motilin, TRH, PACAP, GnRH, leptin, FMRF amide, galanin, NPY, NPW) from gut, brain and other tissues also play a role in modulating GH secretion in livestock and lower vertebrate species 3.

 

Discovery

The discovery of ghrelin was reported by Masayasu Kojima and colleagues in 1999 4.

 

Structural characteristics

Ghrelin is synthesized as a preprohormone (13kDa), and then proteolytically processed to yield a 28 amino acid peptide (3kDa) with an n-octanoyl modification at its third serine residue, which is essential for its biological activity5.

 

Mechanism of action

The ghrelin receptor was known well before ghrelin was discovered. Cells within the anterior pituitary bear a growth hormone secretagoue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin bind to the GHS-R and stimulates the release of the growth hormone (GH).

 
Functions

Ghrelin potently induces GH release both in rats and humans. Ghrelin is primarily produced in distinct endocrine cells in the stomach. Ghrelin-producing neurons are also present in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, a region that regulates GH release and food intake. Ghrelin is also involved in the stimulation of feeding and the regulation of energy metabolism5.

 

References

1.     Hosoda H, Kojima M, Kangawa K (2002). Ghrelin and the Regulation of Food Intake and Energy Balance. Molecular Interventions, 2(8):494-503.

2.     Seim I, Amorim L, Walpole C, Carter S, Chopin LK, Herington AC (2009). Ghrelin gene-related peptides: multi-functional endocrine/autocrine modulators in health and disease. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol .

3.     Anderson LL, Jeftinija S, Scanes CG, Stromer MH, Lee JS, Jeftinija K, Glavaski-Joksimovic A. (2005). Physiology of ghrelin and related peptides. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 29(1):111-144.

4.     Book: Ghrelin. Chapter 2: Discovery of Ghrelin, an Endogenous Ligand for the Growth-Hormone Secret Agogue Receptor. By Masayasu Kojima, Hiroshi Hosoda, Hiroyuki Kaiya and Kenji Kangawa.

5.     Kangawa K, Kojima M, Hosoda H (2004). Ghrelin: discovery and physiological significance. Nippon Rinsho. 62 (9):317-323.

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If you are unable to find your desired product please contact us for assistance or send an email to info@biosyn.com

 
Product Name Catalog # Unit Price/Unit 
C - terminal Proghrelin Isoform Peptide, mouse
RRQLTSNHGQA
11184-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
[Des - octanoyl] - Ghrelin human
GSSFLSPEHQRVQQRKESKKPPAKLQPR
11180-01 1 mg $215 cart inquire
[Des - octanoyl] - Ghrelin rat
GSSFLSPEHQKAQQRKESKKPPAKLQPR
11179-01 1 mg $215 cart inquire
Obestatin (11 - 23), human
LSGVQYQQHSQAL
11186-01 1 mg $230 cart inquire
Obestatin (11 - 23), rat, mouse
LSGAQYQQHGRAL
11185-01 1 mg $231 cart inquire
Obestatin (Bovine)
FNAPFNIGIKLAGAQSLQHGQTL-CONH2
14240-001 100 µg $130 cart inquire
Obestatin (Canine)
FNAPFDVGIKLSGPQYHQHGQAL-CONH2
14241-001 100 µg $130 cart inquire
Obestatin-Gly-Lys (Human)
NH2-FNAPFDVGIKLSGVQYQQHSQALGK-COOH
14247-001 100ug $130 cart inquire
Obestatin-Gly-Lys (Human) - Biotin Labeled
Biotinyl-FNAPFDVGIKLSGVQYQQHSQALGK-COOH
14248-0001 10ug $250 cart inquire
Obestatin-Gly (Rat, Mouse)
NH2-FNAPFDVGIKLSGAQYQQHGRALG- COOH
14249-001 100ug $130 cart inquire
Obestatin-Gly (Rat, Mouse) - Biotin Labeled
Biotinyl-FNAPFDVGIKLSGAQYQQHGRALG-COOH
14250-0001 10ug $250 cart inquire
Obestatin (Goat, Ovine)
FNAPFNIGIKLSGAQSLQHGQTL-CONH2
14242-001 100 µg $130 cart inquire
Obestatin, human
FNAPFDVGIKLSGVQYQQHSQAL-CONH2
11181-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
Obestatin (Human, Monkey)
NH2-FNAPFDVGIKLSGVQYQQHSQAL-CONH2
14251-001 100ug $80 cart inquire
Obestatin (Human, Monkey) - Biotin Labeled
Biotinyl-FNAPFDVGIKLSGVQYQQHSQAL-CONH2
14252-0001 10ug $250 cart inquire
Obestatin (Porcine)
FNAPCDVGIKLSGAQSDQHGQPL-CONH2
14243-001 100 µg $130 cart inquire
Obestatin (Porcine) - Biotin Labeled
Biotin-FNAPCDVGIKLSGAQSDQHGQPL-CONH2
14244-0001 10ug $250 cart inquire
Obestatin, rat, mouse
FNAPFDVGIKLSGAQYQQHGRAL-CONH2
11182-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
Obestatin (Rat, Mouse)
NH2-FNAPFDVGIKLSGAQYQQHGRAL-CONH2
14245-001 100ug $80 cart inquire
Obestatin (Rat, Mouse) - Biotin Labeled
Biotiniyl-FNAPFDVGIKLSGAQYQQHGRAL-CONH2
14246-0001 10ug $250 cart inquire

Biosynthesis Inc.