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Definition
Angiotensin, a protein, causes blood vessels to constrict, and drives blood pressure up. It is part of the renin-angiotensin system, which is a major target for drugs that lower blood pressure.

Discovery
Angiotensin was independently isolated by two groups and named "hypertensin" in Argentina and "angiotonin" in the United States and was later shown to be an octapeptide 1, 2, 3.

Types
The original angiotensin4 (Angiotensin-1) gives rise to Angiotensin-2 by removal of a C-terminal dipeptide. This reaction is mediated by angiotensin converting enzyme in plasma, liver and nerve tissues. Further removal of the aminoterminal amino acid from angiotensin-2 by an aspartate amino peptidase yields Angiotensin-3 (called also angiotensin (2-8); abbr. Ang (2-8). Removal of the terminal arginine from Angiotensin-3 yields angiotensin-4 (called also Angiotensin-2(3-8); abbr. Ang-2(3-8)). Angiotensin-(1-7) (abbr. Ang (1-7)) is a peptide formed endogenously from either Ang-1 or Ang-2.

Structural Characteristics
The amino acid sequence of horse hypertensin II has been determined by the use of chymotrypsin, the fluorodinitrobenzene method, and stepwise phenylisothiocyanate degradation. The amino acids of hypertensin II are arranged in the following order1: asp-arg-val-tyr-iso-hist-pro-phe.

Related Peptides
Potentiation of the hypotensive effect of bradykinin by angiotensin-(1-7)-related peptides: In a study, the bradykinin potentiating activity and ACE inhibitory activity of several Ang-(1-7)-related peptides was evaluated: Ang-(2-7), Ang-(3-7), Ang-(4-7), Ang-(1-6), Ang-(1-5) and the selective antagonist of Ang-(1-7): D-[Ala7]Ang-(1-7) (A-779). In vivo experiments were performed in freely moving Wistar rats. ACE activity was evaluated by a fluorometric assay in rat plasma using Hip-His-Leu as a substrate. Intravenous injections of Ang-(1-7) (2.2 nmol) transformed the effect of a single dose of bradykinin (1 nmol) into the effect produced by a double dose. A similar bradykinin potentiating activity was demonstrated for Ang-(2-7) and Ang-(3-7). On the other hand, Ang-(1-5), Ang-(1-6), Ang-(4-7) and A-779 did not change the hypotensive effect of bradykinin in doses ranging from 8 up to 25 nmols. The hypotensive effect of bradykinin was increased by intravenous infusion (0.3 ng/min) of Ang-(1-7) > Ang-(2-7) > Ang-(3-7). Conversely, Ang-(1–5), Ang-(1–6), Ang-(4–7) or A-779 did not change the hypotensive effect of bradykinin. ACE inhibition with Ang-(1–7) related peptides occurred in the order: Ang-(2–7) = Ang-(3–7) > Ang-(1–7) [>>] Ang-(1–5) > Ang-(4–7) = Ang-(1–6) = A-779. A-779 in concentrations up to 10-5 M did not change the ACE inhibitory activity of Ang-(1–7). These results suggest that Ang-(1–7), Ang-(2–7) and Ang-(3–7) can modulate bradykinin actions in vivo5.

Mode of Action
The renin-angiotensin system is a central component of the physiological and pathological responses of cardiovascular system. Its primary effector hormone, angiotensin II (Ang II), not only mediates immediate physiological effects of vasoconstriction and blood pressure regulation, but is also implicated in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. The myriad effects of Ang II depend on time (acute vs. chronic) and on the cells/tissues upon which it acts. In addition to inducing G protein- and non-G protein-related signaling pathways, Ang II, via AT(1) receptors, carries out its functions via MAP kinases (ERK 1/2, JNK, p38MAPK), receptor tyrosine kinases [PDGF, EGFR, insulin receptor], and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases [Src, JAK/STAT, focal adhesion kinase (FAK)]. AT(1)R-mediated NAD(P)H oxidase activation leads to generation of reactive oxygen species, widely implicated in vascular inflammation and fibrosis. Ang II also promotes the association of scaffolding proteins, such as paxillin, talin, and p130Cas, leading to focal adhesion and extracellular matrix formation. These signaling cascades lead to contraction, smooth muscle cell growth, hypertrophy, and cell migration, events that contribute to normal vascular function, and to disease progression6

Functions
Angiotensin receptors are present in many tissue types, including adrenal cortex, renal glomeruli, heart, hypothalamus, liver, pancreas, pituitary, platelets, renal tubules, uterus and vascular smooth muscle. Two high-affinity receptor subtypes have been identified by radioligand binding with antagonists: losartan (DuP 753/MK954) identifies AT1 receptors; PD123177 and CGP42112A are markers for AT2 receptors. Angiotensin II may be produced locally in tissues outside the humoral system. For example, it is found in the brain, kidney and heart. Within the brain, the heptapeptide angiotensin(1-7) mimics some effects of angiotensin II, but may be formed directly from angiotensin I. Evidence for non-ACE-mediated angiotensin II production has been reported in the heart. Intravascular angiotensin II receptors are implicated in the central release of vasopressin and other hypophyseal hormones, in increasing sympathetic outflow, in the thirst response and, possibly, in cognitive function; in the inotropic and chronotropic effects of angiotensin II on the heart as well as in growth/hypertrophy; in the control of aldosterone release and in the balance between cortisol and aldosterone secretion; and in modulating sodium, chloride and bicarbonate transport within the kidney 7.

References

  1. Skeggs LT, Lentz KE, Kahn, Jr, Shumway NP, Woods KR (1956). The amino acid sequence of hypertensin II. J Exp Med., 104:193-197.
  2. Bumpus FM, Schwartz H and Page IH (1957) Synthesis and pharmacology of the octapeptide angiotonin. Science., 125:886-887.
  3. Elliott DF,Peart WS (1956). Amino acid sequence in a hypertensin. Nature, 177:527-528.
  4. Ion Haulica, Walther Bild and Dragomir N Serban (2005). Review: Angiotensin Peptides and their Pleiotropic Actions. Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst., 6: 121.
  5. Paula RD, Lima CV, Britto RR, Campagnole-Santos MJ, Khosla MC, Santos RA (1999). Potentiation of the hypotensive effect of bradykinin by angiotensin-(1-7)-related peptides. Peptides., 20(4):493-500.
  6. Mehta PK, Griendling KK  (2007). Angiotensin II cell signaling: physiological and pathological effects in the cardiovascular system. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol., 292(1):82-97.
  7. Lees KR, MacFadyen RJ, Doig JK, Reid JL (1993). Role of angiotensin in the extravascular system. J Hum Hypertens., 7(2):7-12.

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Product Name Catalog # Unit Price/Unit 
Angiotensin (1 - 5)
DRVYI
10325-01 1 mg $205 cart inquire
Angiotensin (1 - 5), FAM - labeled
FAM-DRVYI
10326-01 1 mg $260 cart inquire
Angiotensin (1 - 7)
DRVYIHP
10323-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
Angiotensin (1 - 9)
DRVYIHPFH
10324-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor, BPP 9a-10319-01
Pyr-WPRPQIPP
10319-01 1 mg $185 cart inquire
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Substrate (FAP)
Bz-FAP
10322-01 1 mg $180 cart inquire
Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2, ACE - 2/Caspase - 1 Substrate
Mca - YVADAPK(Dnp)
14282-01 1 mg $232 cart inquire
Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE - 2) Substrate
Mca-APK(Dnp)
10320-01 1 mg $127 cart inquire
Angiotensin I human
DRVYIHPFHL
10306-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
Angiotensin I human-10306-05
DRVYIHPFHL
10306-05 5 mg $120 cart inquire
Angiotensin I, human
DRVYIHPFHL
10306-25 25 mg $116 cart inquire
Angiotensin I, human, 13C and 15N - labeled
DRVYI*HPFHL
10328-001 0.1 mg $270 cart inquire
Angiotensin I, human, FAM - labeled
FAM-DRVYIHPFHL
10329-01 1 mg $295 cart inquire
Angiotensin I, human, TAMRA - labeled
TAMRA-DRVYIHPFHL
10330-01 1 mg $300 cart inquire
Angiotensin II Antipeptide
EGVYVHPV
10318-01 1 mg $185 cart inquire
Angiotensin II, human
DRVYIHPF
10308-01 1 mg $175 cart inquire
Angiotensin II, human, acetylated
Ac-DRVYIHPF
13969-01 1mg $171 cart inquire
Angiotensin II human, FAM - labeled
FAM-DRVYIHPF
10311-01 1 mg $166 cart inquire
Angiotensin II, human, TAMRA - labeled
TAMRA-DRVYIHPF
10327-01 1 mg $176 cart inquire
Angiotensin III
RVYIHPF
10317-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
Angiotensin I/II (3 - 8)
VYIHPF
10314-01 1 mg $185 cart inquire
Angiotensin I/II (4 - 8)
YIHPF
10315-01 1 mg $185 cart inquire
Angiotensin I/II (5 - 8)
IHPF
10316-01 1 mg $185 cart inquire
Angiotensin II Receptor, AT2, Amino Terminal Fragm
MKDNFSFAATSRNITSS
10334-01 1 mg $235 cart inquire
Angiotensin II Substrate
DRV-pY-IHPF
10310-01 1 mg $232 cart inquire
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (181 - 187), AT1, A
AFHYESQ
10333-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
Apstatin, Aminopeptidase P Inhibitor
NH2-[(2S,3R)-3-amino-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutanoyl]-PPA-CONH2
13971-01 1mg $171 cart inquire
AT1A, Angiotensin II receptor, (225 - 237)
AYEIQKNKPRNDD
10335-01 1 mg $220 cart inquire
Biotin - Angiotensin I, human
Biotin-DRVYIHPFHL
10309-01 1 mg $250 cart inquire
Biotin - LC - Angiotensin II
Biotin-LC-DRVYIHPF
10312-01 1 mg $205 cart inquire
Biotin - LC - Angiotensin II-10312-05
Biotin - LC - DRVYIHPF
10312-05 5 mg $259 cart inquire
ClearPoint™ Angiotensin I, human, 13C and 15N - labeled
DRVY-I*-HPFHL [I*= I(U13C6,15N)]
13974-001 0.1 mg $243 cart inquire
ClearPoint™ Angiotensin I, human, 13C and 15N labeled
DR-V*-Y-I*-HPFHL [Val* = Val(U-13C5,15N); Ile* = Ile(U-13C6,15N)]
13972-001 0.1 mg $177 cart inquire
ClearPoint™ Angiotensin II, human, 13C and 15N - labeled
DRVY-I*-HPF [I*= I(U13C6,15N)]
13973-001 0.1 mg $243 cart inquire
[Des - Asp1] - Angiotensin I, human
RVYIHPFHL
13961-01 1 mg $171 cart inquire
DX 600, ACE2 Inhibitor
Ac-GDYSHCSPLRYYPWWKCTYPDPEGGG-CONH2
10338-001 0.1 mg $116 cart inquire
HRP Prorenin, Decoy Handle Region (31-40), rat
RILLKKMPSV
10336-01 1 mg $200 cart inquire
IPP, ACE - I Inhibitor
IPP
13975-025 25 mg $193 cart inquire
Ovokinin (2 - 7)
RADHPF
13976-01 1mg $161 cart inquire
Prorenin Peptide (33-42)
RIFLKRMPSI
10337-01 1 mg $210 cart inquire
Renin 390 FRET Substrate I
R-E(EDANS)-IHPFHLVIHT-K(DABCYL)-R
13978-01 1mg $210 cart inquire
Renin Inhibitor III
RRPFH-Sta-IHK-CONH2
10339-01 1 mg $310 cart inquire
Renin Substrate human
DRVYIHPFHLVIHN
10307-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire
[Sar1, Ala8] - Angiotensin II
Sar-RVYIHPA
13967-01 1mg $171 cart inquire
[Sar1, Val5, Ala8] - Angiotensin II, Saralasin
Sar-RVYVHPA
13968-05 5mg $133 cart inquire
Tetradecapeptide Renin Substrate, Angiotensinogen (1 - 14), rat
DRVYIHPFHLLYYS
14283-01 1 mg $120 cart inquire

Biosynthesis Inc.